E tipu e rea mo ngā rā o tō ao
Ko tō ringa ki ngā rākau ā te Pakeha Hei ara mō tō tinana
Ko tō ngākau ki ngā tāonga a ō tīpuna Māori
Hei tikitiki mō tō māhuna
Ko tō wairua ki tō Atua, Nānā nei ngā mea katoa
It is fitting, following the month of April, to celebrate the goals of, and awards bestowed upon Tā Tīpene O’Regan who relentlessly tackled head on, issues that confronted him and commanded his attention – be it a Tiriti claim, race relations, or other take. As his family said he was a man driven by issues rather than people.
“We must remember to remember – you can never have a vision of what you want to be unless you know where you’re from [to avoid] repeating the mistakes of the past.”
In the area of race relations he believes that Māori are here by right of their indigenous status and that all other peoples are here by right of Te Tiriti. He believes that we must continue to evolve and shape our view of New Zealand as we wish it to be. He is a man who did not fight for full reimbursement for all land lost – he had no wish to bankrupt the country in pursuit of an equitable monetary pay-out. The entire value of Treaty settlements over the past quarter of a century would cover superannuation payments for two months.
“I am concerned that in this great intersection of law and history, to which the Treaty and its outcomes have condemned us, we might begin to so devalue our past, that our history and tradition become mere opinion, blown by political winds and fanned by incessant gusts of media opportunism.’
He sought to invest and grow a putea in a way which would lift his people into an entrepreneurial economic future.
Last month Tā Tipene became the Kiwibank New Zealander of the Year. His life and achievements are set out in the following online articles and videos:
In pulling together details of Tā Tipene’s life, I find it distressing that whānau should become unwitting victims of harassment and behaviour by people demanding their right to freedom of speech (and action) in order to “punish” a parent’s determination to hold fast to a line of firm belief. As Tā Tipene says, in his stories, it was this side of his life which was most hurtful to his family.
Kōrero by Tā Tipene is available on our catalogue:
New myths and old politics : the Waitangi Tribunal and the challenge of tradition / O’Regan, Tipene
“Negotiating a claim before the Waitangi Tribunal can involve troubling challenges to an iwi’s legitimacy, sometimes from unexpected places. In this unique behind-the-scenes account of the negotiation of Ngāi Tahu’s Waitangi Tribunal claim, Sir Tipene O’Regan describes what happened when claims of New Age mysticism attempted to undermine traditional whakapapa and academic scholarship”–Publisher information.” (Catalogue)
He Tangata, he tangata, he tangata: of the people, by the people, for the people.
He hōnore, he korōria ki te Atua he maungārongo ki te whenua. He whakaaro pai ki ngā tāngata katoa.
As 29 April 2022 approaches, the effects of Covid19 means that once more Wellington City Libraries will not mark the signing of Te Tiriti in Te Whanganui-a-Tara with a three-pronged kōrero –i.e. a mana whenua summary of past actions, informed discussion of present aspects of te tiriti and then future thoughts as in: where to now.
The burning question for today is he kupu – “co-governance”.
How I wish that we could call upon Moana to offer up a wise, quiet, succinct non-inflammatory explanation, but, alas, he is no longer with us. This month we are totally devastated by his passing, and the many pages of social media commentary have highlighted and refreshed for us his many words of wisdom. Here was a man who quietly touched the hearts of so many people, yet remained absolutely centred on his whānau.
In his kōrero for the launch of “Imagining decolonisation” at Unity Books, he told us how he would approach an upcoming kōrero by going for a long walk, in order to think carefully of the words and ideas he wished to impart. And often his delivery would begin (or end) with a quiet little story involving a grandchild, and a vision for us all through a child’s lens.
Please find below he poroporoakī ki tēnei tangata mīharo.
Below is a list of books written by Moana Jackson, which are held in the library’s collection:
“Seeks to demystify decolonisation using illuminating, real-life examples. By exploring the impact of colonisation on Māori and non-Māori alike, ‘Imagining decolonisation’ presents a transformative vision of a country that is fairer for all”–Publisher information.” (Catalogue)
Over 3000 claims have been made to the Waitangi Tribunal during its first 40 years of existence.
Having worked on historical district enquiries, the Tribunal now endeavours to complete the kaupapa enquiries — which cover issues of national significance. Wai 262 claim is a kaupapa inquiry — often referred to as the Flora and Fauna claim.
A report was issued in 2011 for the claim, brought by six iwi, but there is a continuing feeling of dissatisfaction with that report as unfinished business. All six original iwi representatives are now deceased. The breadth of the claim is immense:
The report encompassed the issues of taonga works and intellectual property (trademarks and copyright); taonga species and intellectual property (patents and plant variety rights); management of the environment generally (the Resource Management Act) and the conservation estate specifically (the Department of Conservation); te reo Māori (including tribal dialects); rongoā Māori; the negotiation of international agreements; and the Crown’s control or funding of mātauranga Māori across archives, libraries, museums, the regime governing protected objects, education, the arts.
He Manutukutuku is a commemorative issue for the 40th anniversary of the Waitangi Tribunal. Paul Hamer, p. 56, describes the Wai 262 claim:
Wai 262 is also regarded as the Tribunal’s first ever whole-of-government inquiry, in that it scrutinised the policies and performance of 20 government departments and agencies.
“This version is the full 2-volume report and addresses the Wai 262 claim concerning New Zealand law and policy affecting Maori culture and identity. Te Taumata Tuarua describes the claim in depth and gives the Waitangi Tribunals findings and recommendations concerning intellectual property in ‘taonga works’ created by weavers, carvers, writers, musicians, artists, and others; Maori interests in the genetic and biological resources in indigenous flora and fauna, which are the subject of increasing scientific and commercial interest; Maori involvement in decision-making on resource management and conservation; Crown support for te reo Maori, the Maori language; Crown control of matauranga Maori (Maori knowledge and ways of knowing) in arts, culture, heritage, broadcasting, education, and science; rongoa Maori or traditional healing; and Maori input into New Zealand’s positions on international instruments.” (Description from Fishpond)
It is not often that the death of one of our very own homegrown authors receives instant world-wide recognition as portrayed in this collection of images and tributes below. But never has any of our authors managed to win a Booker Prize with their first novel, and at the same time, inserted a Māori and multicultural voice into the landscape of prize-winning international literature.
To remember this original and important voice in Aotearoa New Zealand literature, we’ve collected some links and works below:
The bone people / Hulme, Keri
“A story of Kerewin, a despairing part-Māori artist who is convinced that her solitary life is the only way to face the world. Her cocoon is rudely blown away by the sudden arrival during a rainstorm of Simon, a mute six-year-old whose past seems to hold some terrible trauma.” (Catalogue)
Strands / Hulme, Keri
“This second collection of poems by the Booker Prize-winning author of The Bone People is made up of three parts. Hulme’s verse is loose, sometimes including passages of prose, but is shaped by a powerful romantic drive and a sophisticated attention to the behaviour of language.” (Catalogue)
Stonefish / Hulme, Keri
“A collection of short stories and poems by the only New Zealand writer to win the Pegasus Prize for Māori Literature and the Booker Prize.” (Catalogue)
Tēnā koutou katoa, e te whānau! Matariki is a time for recollection and remembering, as well as hope for the new year. In this post, Ann Reweti, our Māori Customer Specialist, brings together a range of resources that outline the history of place names here in Te Whanganui-a-Tara and farther afield.
“The adage ‘to name is to claim’ has been central to discovery and exploration since time immemorial – Māori call it tapa whenua, whakaingoa whenua or whakahau whenua
Naming places involved a number of customs, including:
transplanting Polynesian ancestral names and symbolism to New Zealand places
taunaha (naming after body parts) to emphasise personal claims to land
naming places according to their features
naming places after people
naming for historical or spiritual reasons
naming to celebrate cultural icons.”
Ngā Ingoa Peka Māori: Our Māori Branch Names
Our whare pukapuka each have a Māori name. The stories of these names, and the places they relate to can be found on our branch names page.
“Taunaha Whenua: Naming the Land”
This Matariki, Wellington City Libraries were proud to tautoko a kōrero by Honiana Love, Tumu Whakarae of Ngā Taonga, called “Taunaha Whenua: Naming the Land”. Honiana spoke about history of place names used by mana whenua in this rohe, packing out the National Library Auditorium.
“Memorials, Names and Ethical Remembering”
The day before, the National Library also held their first Public History talk for the year, “Memorials, Names and Ethical Remembering”, with Morrie Love, Nicky Karu and Ewan Morris.
We’re glad to be able to share links to recordings of both those kōrero.
Illustrated Maori place names / Reed, A. W.
“Many Maori place names date back to the very earliest days of habitation in Aotearoa New Zealand. Some, in fact, originated in the Hawaiki homeland and were adapted to the new land. Whatever their origin, most reflect the Maori’s closeness to the forces of nature and incorporate common words for everyday things. Lavishly illustrated, this dictionary explains and interprets over 1500 place names as well as providing a guide to pronunciation.” (Catalogue)
Making our place : exploring land-use tensions in Aotearoa New Zealand
“Fascination with the interplay of people and place inspired the editors to bring together New Zealanders from different backgrounds and disciplines to explore some of the stories and sites of conflict and change to be found amongst our sacred, historic, rural, urban and coastal landscapes.” (Catalogue)
Exploring Aotearoa : short walks to reveal the Māori landscape / Janssen, Peter
“Take a short walk with this book and see the Maori landscape through fresh eyes. Maori culture has close ties with the landscape, in pa and early battle sites, and in myths and legends. From north to south, nearly 200 of the most accessible and memorable landmarks can be visited including volcanic summits, headlands, lakes and islands as well as pa sites urupa (graveyards), and hunting and fishing grounds.” (Catalogue)
Boundary markers : land surveying and the colonisation of New Zealand / Byrnes, Giselle
“In a country where land disputes were the chief cause of conflict between the coloniser and the colonised, surveying could never be a neutral, depoliticised pastime. In a groundbreaking piece of scholarship, Giselle Byrnes examines the way surveyors became figuratively and literally ‘the cutting edge of colonisation’. Clearing New Zealand’s vast forests, laying out town plans and deciding on place names, they were at every moment asserting British power. Boundary Markers also shows how the surveyors’ ‘commercial gaze’, a view of the countryside coloured by the desire for profit, put them at odds with the Māori view of land.” (Publisher’s Description).
Nga Tupuna o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Vol. 1).
The Nga Tupuna project was initiated by Wellington City Libraries working in collaboration with the Wellington Tenth’s Trust. While the history of Maori ownership of land around the Wellington area was being researched as part of various Treaty of Waitangi claims, it was felt that not enough emphasis was being given to the biographies of the individuals being named in those claims. This document is the first of four volumes of collected biographies. (WCL Recollect).
The Pukeahu Anthology.
“Pukeahu: An Exploratory Anthology” is a place-based anthology of waiata, poems, essays, and fiction about Pukeahu / Mt Cook, a small hill in Wellington, Aotearoa-New Zealand that rises between two streams.
It was with sadness that Wellington City Libraries learned of the passing of Sandra Clarke recently.
In 2000, Welington City Libraries in association with Wellington Tenths Trust funded the first of four volumes of tūpuna living in Te Whanganui-a-Tara , 1840 (and onwards). Although Waitangi Tribunal report– from the onging claims process, gives a comprehensive insight into the history of the land – missing from that history is the stories of people who lived and established a presence on these lands.
Two researchers, Neville Gilmore (in association with then Wellington Tenths Trust), and Sandra Clarke began to fill in the gaps of a multitude of interconnecting relationships of the people of Te Whanganui-a-Tara.
Not sure of our process, we sought a research assistant skilled in identifying land titles, and tracking relationships through a myriad of government / archival historical files. Sandra became that person for us, and her writing formed the basis of the four Tūpuna volumes published 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007. The time factor for each volume was insane, but Sandra put her head down, and delivered to us a short one-pager bio each week, during the alternate years of– 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006.
Sandra’s personal experience in tracking and recording the lives of both her paternal and maternal forbears was a lifelong commitment and several of her research papers have been deposited with Alexander Turnbull Library.
An example of Sandra’s research tenacity is this photograph above, discovered at Alexander Turnbull Library – which she linked to Ropiha Moturoa and whānau outside his neat weather-board house at Pipitea.
In the early 1800s the stories behind the naming of the land in Te Whanganui-a-Tara were often sourced to Te Whatahoro Jury and three women – Ngarimu Mawene, Mere Ngamai and Rangiwahia Te Puni.
Te Whatahoro Jury
Te Whatahoro Jury was born 1841 in Hawkes Bay — his father worked for William Williams. In 1842 the family moved to Wairarapa. He became a scribe to Te Matorohanga and Nepia Pohuhu and was charged with recording tribal traditions on behalf of his iwi. Some of this material was used later, by Elsdon Best, T. W. Downes, S. Percy Smith and John White. He married seven times. He died 1923 and is buried at Papawai cemetery.
Ngarimu Mawene Hohua
Ngarimu Mawene is listed in documents held at Te Papa. Ngarimu Mawene may have been connected to Hohua Te Atuawera and Hariata Mawene, with links therefore Te Ngatoro and (first?) husband, Wakairianiwa. Te Ngatoro was, in turn, a daughter to Aniwaniwa and Tawhirikura. It is said that, as a young girl, Ngarimu danced on the beach at Pito-one as the “Tory Pioneers” arrived in 1839.
Rangi Te Puni is believed to have been born in Waipa Valley, with links to Tainui and Ngāti Rārua. She succeeded to land at Te Tau Ihu o te Waka. Rangiwahia,(Rangiwhaia) was the daughter of Rangitakaia, and grandchild of Hinehape. Rangiwahia was the wife of Henare Te Puni, who in turn was the son of Honiana Te Puni and Wikitoria Muri-tu-waka-roto.
[Whakapapa of Aperaham Huritapae: Nelson MB, 13/6/89 / [WMB NO. 3, P. 39]
James Cowan has written about Māori place names of Te Whanganui-a-Tara in the Evening Post, 1912. These are available on PapersPast, in the Evening Post:
A list of Māori place names of Te Whanganui-a-Tara concludes Elsdon Best’s The land of Tara. Here is a map from that book.
Te Whatahoro Jury’s work in transcribing oral histories possibly, formed a basis for stories in Elsdon Best’s – The land of Tara, published first in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, and then in book form, 1919.
Best’s list of names was revised and greatly expanded by G Leslie Adkin in:
Māori have long had an interest in the spiritual value of land: it pervades their sense of identity and how they relate to others. But land is also the foundation of their survival, in economic as well as cultural terms 
Giselle Byrnes, writing of surveyors as Pākehā boundary markers, shows that these men were also naming the land, and “owning” the whenua for their colonial government in a way that parallels the Māori concept of Tapa Whenua.
Boundary markers suggest that the surveyors colonised the land through language, literally inscribing it with new meanings and ways of seeing: place naming and mapping are perhaps the best examples of this 
For Māori, in oral tradition, naming the land was essential for defining iwi and hapū boundaries. Sites of tribal significance — maunga, awa, moana then become key elements in kawa o te marae, and whanaungatanga, in rituals of encounter, where politeness decrees that you ask not “ko wai koe?/ who are you?”, but rather, “nō hea koe? / where are you from?”
Surveyors extended their sketching skills to record not just Pākehā boundaries, but also snapshots of the life and times of our tūpuna.
Legend has it that both Matiu and Makaro Islands received their original Māori names from Kupe, the semi-legendary first navigator to reach New Zealand and get home again with reports of the new land. He named them after his two daughters (or, in some versions of the tale, nieces) when he first entered the harbour about 1000 years ago.
“After European settlement, the island was known for over a century as Somes Island. In 1839 it fell under the control of the New Zealand Company along with much of the greater Wellington region.”
“The island was renamed after Joseph Somes, the company’s deputy-governor and financier at the time. In 1997 however, the New Zealand Geographic Board assigned the official bilingual name of Matiu/Somes in recognition of the island’s colourful European and Māori histories.” 
I look forward to Morrie Love’s kōrero to reveal the layers of history that lie both beneath our feet and before our eyes, and to provide an opportunity to understand the heritage of Te Whanganui-a-Tara.
Stories in names / Tohunga. New Zealand Railways magazine ; vol. 9, issue 6 (1934)
Maori Land Court. Nelson Minute Book. 13/6/89. P. 39.
Ngā mihi o te tau hou: amongst this varied collection of new books is a lovely new edition of Ani Mikaere’s The balance destroyed. The illustrations by Robyn Kahukiwa enhance the themes of Ani Mikaere’s thesis of twenty years ago – her research of mana wahine and ira wahine has more than stood the test of time.
Faith, politics and reconciliation : Catholicism and the politics of indigeneity / Dominic O’Sullivan.
“Were Catholics guilty of [aiding and abetting] the genocide of indigenous peoples during the colonization of Australia and New Zealand? … In order to answer these and other related questions over the role of the Roman Catholic Church in the colonization of Australia and New Zealand, Dominic O’Sullivan takes us on a theological, philosophical and political journey from the countries of Europe to the colonies of Australia and New Zealand.” (Syndetics summary)
Ka hoki tāua ki te whare huri ai ē! / kaiētita Agnes McFarland rāua ko Taiarahia Black.
“This collection of essays, all in Te Reo Maori, explores histories, people and places of significance, and takes the reader into the oral arts, including haka, karakia, and waiata… Ka titiro atu koe ki tetahi mea, ki tetahi whenua, ki tetahi awa, ki tetahi kainga, ki tetahi tangata ka hokia mai ano aua whakaaro me nga ahuatanga i kite ai koe i te wa i a koe e tamariki ana. .. Kai roto i teneki pukapuka e kitea ai te wairua o te kupu, a tena kaiwhakairo i te kupu, whakaniko i te kupu ataahua o roto mai i te rohe o Mataatua.” (Syndetics summary)
Dancing with the King : the rise and fall of the King Country, 1864-1885 / Michael Belgrave.
“After the battle of Orakau in 1864 and the end of the war in the Waikato, Tawhiao, the second Maori King, and his supporters were forced into an armed isolation in the Rohe Potae, the King Country. For the next twenty years, the King Country operated as an independent state – a land governed by the Maori King where settlers and the Crown entered at risk of their lives.” (Syndetics summary)
Water rights for Ngai Tahu : A discussion paper “In Water rights for Ngāi Tahu, Te Maire Tau considers the historical and political framework that has contributed to the current state of water rights in the Ngāi Tahu takiwā. He explores the customary, legal, and Treaty frameworks that feed into the debate regarding the ownership of water…” (back cover)
The history of Hawke’s Bay / Matthew Wright.
“Hawke’s Bay has a remarkable history, brief by world standards, yet filled with colour, pace and life. This illustrated history covers the broadest sweep of Hawke’s Bay’s past, telling the wider tale of people and their ideals… “(Syndetics summary)
p. 7. Land and people — Māui – arrival of Ngāti Kahungunu – Hawkes Bay during the ‘musket wars’
p. 27. Cowboy frontier – land sharks and proselytes – Donald Mclean’s land purchases – the war at Te Pakiakia –
p. 68. (The land of the shepherd kings) – race, war and politics.
Searches for tradition : essays on New Zealand music, past & present / edited by Michael Brown & Samantha Owens.
“In Douglas Lilburn’s famous address to the 1946 Cambridge Summer School of Music, the composer described his ‘search for tradition’ in the music of New Zealand and spelled out his hopes that a distinctive art music might yet emerge here.
p. 59. Alfred Hill’s ‘Māori songs : whose tradition?” by Melissa Cross
p. 125 Whāia te māramatanga : the search for enlightenment by Valance Smith
p. 139 Mai I te pō : the reclamation of taonga pōro as a living treasure by Awhina Tamarapa and Ariana Tikao
p. 223 Shaping traditions of vocality : the lyrical legacy of Kiri Te Kanawa by Jenny Wollerman
Linguist at work : festschrift for Janet Holmes / edited by Meredith Marra and Paul Warren.
“Throughout her 45-year career at Victoria University of Wellington, Professor Janet Holmes has operated at the cutting edge of sociolinguistics. She is recognised as a field leader, a pioneer for new approaches, and a warm and generous mentor…” (Syndetics summary)
P. 159. Audiences, referees and landscapes : understanding the use of Māori and English in New Zealand dual language picture books through a sociolinguistic lens by Nicola Daly.
Petroleum development and environmental conflict in Aotearoa New Zealand : Texas of the South Pacific / Terrence M. Loomis.
“Petroleum Development and Environmental Conflict in Aotearoa New Zealand: Texas of the South Pacific examines the dilemmas associated with economic growth through the expansion of resource extraction. … Terrence M. Loomis analyzes the circumstances under which environmental opposition to state policies to promote oil and gas development–in collaboration with the petroleum industry–, has lead to far-reaching changes in institutional relations between the state and civil society.” (Syndetics summary)
p. 163. Selling the East Coast.
p. 193. Community and indigenous responses to oil and gas development
Recently I breathed in the gentle gentility of the Wellington Club, The Terrace, whilst held in awe of Helen Riddiford’s meticulous and deeply researched account of the New Zealand Company’s finest member, Dr George Samuel Evans.
By evening’s end, there were surely more than the just the two of us who would attest to his right to be named Wellington’s founding father, – a man who stood tall on the principles and the application of the Company’s constitution and held a desire to include tangata whenua in te ao hurihuri, / an evolving new life. In the words of one of our two official languages – here was a man truly worthy of the description: he kōtuku rerenga tahi.
For all the sentiments expressed above – how many people , today, remember any details of this man who gave his name to that inner bay (Evans’s / Evans Bay) and whose contribution to the settlement placed him second only to Colonel Wakefield, in his roles, which included that of chief judicial authority for the new colony.
When Edward Gibbon Wakefield accompanied Lord Durham to Canada, it was Dr Evans who stepped forward to place his hand firmly on the tiller of the colonial ship.
But who was this man? George Evans grew up in a household where civil and religious liberty was embraced. He was a brilliant scholar who excelled in Latin, Greek and Hebrew – His later work spanned the fields of education, judiciary and journalism. In 1928 he became, briefly, headmaster of Mill Hill School, London.
It was here that he met school matron Mrs Riddiford, whose husband passed away in 1829. George and Harriet married, 16 January 1930, and George became the stepfather of Amelia (13 years) and Daniel (16 years) – he, Daniel, who was to become the founder of the Riddiford farming dynasty at Orongorongo and the stations around the Wairarapa coast of New Zealand.
There is so much detail of Evans’ life within the pages of this book. There’s the interesting story of his involvement with Nayti and Hiakai, two passengers on the Mississippi who became stranded at Le Havre, were rescued by the New Zealand Association and provided with lodgings by Wakefield and Evans, in the 1830s. With Hiakai’s help George Evans was introduced to Māori customs and reo. He began a grammar of Te Reo Māori, which was completed in 1839, but never officially published. Wellington City Central Library holds a copy of this Manuscript of a Maori grammar.
The top view stretches across Thorndon Flat with Dr Evans’ house on the left, a range of early houses and businesses along the waterfront and on the right, Colonel William Wakefield’s house with flagpole.
(Source: Brees, Samuel Charles, 1810-1865 :Pictorial Illustrations of New Zealand. London, John Williams and Co., Library of Arts, 141, Strand, 1847.. Ref: PUBL-0020-22. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22816178)
Dr Evans fulfilled a designated role as advocate for Māori in all legal disputes – with varying degrees of success. Helen’s easy- read documentation of Dr Evans life and work in the new colony makes this book an absolute must for those of us mindful of the view – that you must first understand and embrace the past in order to move forward.
The study of the settlement of Wellington is a very complex exercise – but – don’t be confined only to those official publications — the reports and commissions, and records of deeds of release – Here lies, within these pages, the flavour of that era. This is a far more interesting journey by way of Helen’s archival research and her detailed account of Dr Evans work.
Dr Evans returned to England, 1846-52, and was dealt to harshly by the Company, in clearing the debts on his town and country sections in Wellington. It was an example of Wakefield’s ‘ability’ to turn against his closest allies.
George Evans and Harriet moved to Melbourne, 1853. He planned to undertake legal work but also began working with the Melbourne Morning Herald. He later gained a seat in the legislative assembly. His journalistic output was legendary. George and Harriet returned to New Zealand, 1865, but Harriet died 31 March 1866, and Dr Evans’ death followed in 1868.
In the words of Helen Riddiford “In the colonies he was head and shoulders above many of his peers in education and ability. He operated within an influential network of men, but was always independent in his views, which isolated him from many of his contemporaries. He was viewed as a ‘singular character’ a gentleman almost unique in this setting. His many visionary ideas were handicapped by a volatile temperament and principles that were compromised by circumstances, an unpredictable man of reckless courage whose steadfast commitment to the creation and success of Wellington was fully acknowledged after his death. Amongst others, The Independent noted that he was ‘one of the founders, if not the real founder of this colony. There is scarcely an official document of the period in which [his] name is not conspicuous”.
Here was a man truly worthy of the title bestowed by his Māori friends – Nui, Nui Rangatira