| The Streets of my city, Wellington New Zealand, |
by F. L. Irvine-Smith. (1948).
Part Two : Chapter Nine
|Contents: a letter | Part One chapters: 1 | 2 | Part Two chapters: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 |
Part Three chapters: Intro | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Appendix
I think you ought to recollect,
You cannot show too much respect,
Towards the highly-titled few.
The Mikado, Act 1.
EVERY SCHOOLBOY (in New Zealand) knows that the Dominion has had three capitals - also that since 1865 the capital has been Wellington, a distinction that carries with it the oficial residence of the "First Citizen" to say nothing of the routs, rallies, receptions and administrative activity incidental thereto. This being so, we should expect to find, and do find in our midst, street names commemorating the services of our most distinguished, and at times, deeply appreciated overseas visitors, to wit, the Governors of the Colony, or in more modern parlance (since 1917) the Governors-General of the Dominion.
The following are vice-regal names:-,
|Captain Wm. Hobson||1840-1842||Hobson St|
|Captain Robert FitzRoy, R.N.||1843-45||Fitzroy St|
|Sir George Grey||1845-53,|
|Sir George Bowen||1868-1873||Bowen Street|
|Marquis of Normanby||1875-1879||Normanby St|
|Sir William Jervois||1883-9||Jervois Quay|
|Earl of Onslow||1889-1892||Onslow Borough St|
|Earl of Glasgow and Fairlie||1892-1897|| Glasgow Street|
Fairlie Tce, Kelburn.
|Earl of Ranfurly||1897-1904||Ranfurly Tce, Northland|
|Lord Plunket||1904-1910|| Plunket Street|
|Earl of Liverpool||1912-1920||Liverpool Street|
|Viscount Jellicoe||1920-1924||Scapa Street|
Featherston Street looking towards Lambton Quay; the General Post Office now dwarfed by modern buildings, centre left.
Hobson Street recalls New Zealand's first Governor, Captain Wm. Hobson, R.N. (1793-1842). He died in harness, September 10th, 1842, at the early age of fortynine, and lies buried in the old Symonds Street Cemetery of Auckland, at that time the capital of the Colony. In the pre-motor days of Wellington, no more recherche address could be given than that of "Hobson Street" and this quiet stretch of picturesque old colonial mansions, now, as then, debarred by a gully and suspension bridge from through traffic, though long since the victim of closer settlement, to say nothing of smuts and noise from ever-encroaching railway yards, still retains much of the calm dignity of its more exclusive days.
Hobson's only son, another William Hobson (1831-1880) followed in his father's footsteps and entered the Navy. He was engaged in the search for Sir John Franklin and was one of the party that in 1859 discovered on King William Island the relics that established the fate of the missing explorer. Few visitors to Westminster Abbey are unacquainted with the striking Franklin Memorial, with its well-known epitaph written by the explorer's own nephew, Alfred, Lord Tennyson -
Not here; the White North has thy bones; and thou,Lady Franklin visited Port Nicholson when her husband was Governor of Tasmania, arriving by H.M.S. "Favourite" on March 3rd, 1841. She was completing a tour of the Australasian Colonies, and during her short stay was the guest of Colonel Wakefield.
Heroic sailor soul,
Art passing on thy happier voyage now
Towards no earthly pole.
Fitzroy Street recalls Captain FitzRoy, R.N. (1805-1865), the least successful of all the New Zealand Governors, but the trials of the colonists during his two stormy years of office in the forties seem of little moment in the light of his subsequent benefactions to humanity at large. This peppery gentleman, of most aristocratic lineage - a grandson on his father's side of the Duke of Grafton, on his mother's, of the Marquis of Londonderry - was a seaman pure and simple, and apparently quite out of his element on dry land. His first sight of New Zealand was in 1834 when he commanded H.M.S. "Beagle," which touched at the Bay of Islands in the course of a scientific voyage round the world. Everyone is familiar with Darwin's "Voyage of the Beagle" - he was the naturalist on board - but FitzRoy likewise wrote a book on the voyage and in it gives full rein to his hobby, a hobby he never ceased to pursue, to wit, "the observation of the weather," nay, not only the observation of the weather, but "the forecast of the weather," a phrase he himself coined. Like most innovators, he was opposed by a wall of prejudice. Scientists of the day were quite agreeable to sending out warnings when the existence of a storm was known, but felt there was something distinctly uncanny in saying what was going to happen before it happened at all. FitzRoy was no trained meteorologist, but working by rule of thumb, and undaunted by opposition, he was sufficiently successful to gain more and more the confidence of those that go down to the sea in ships. Hardbitten sailor that he was, it must have been sweet solace to him to read (1862) that "at a recent meeting of the shareholders of the Great Western Docks at Stonehaven, Plymouth, it was stated officially that the deficiency in revenue is to be attributed chiefly to the absence of vessels requiring the use of the graving docks for the purpose of repairing the damages occasioned by storms and casualties at sea." Of the fortyseven weather rules which he evolved, posterity gives the verdict. (3) "They are wonderfully correct, and there is hardly a single one for which a scientific reason cannot now be given, although such a reason was entirely unknown to FitzRoy."
Think, then, when you tread the footpaths of FitzRoy Street, of the thousands of vessels that year by year, come safe to port because of the atmospheric sagacity of this irritable, overbearing, tactless snob of a sailor Governor, whom Fate ordained to be the World's First Weather Forecaster and champion Saviour of Ships, and about whom history has so seldom found time to bestow a single word of praise.
Sir George Grey (1812-1898) autocrat, author, explorer, soldier, statesman, bibliophile, ethnologist, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand and Governor of Cape Colony, takes rank with Edward Gibbon Wakefield and Bishop Selwyn, as one of the three greatest figures of early New Zealand history. He is fittingly commemorated in Grey Street, one of the busiest Wellington thoroughfares, forming the main approach from the Queen's Wharf to Lambton Quay. He was the first resident Governor in Wellington, and is generally conceded to have been the greatest of all the Empire's pro-consuls. No man has ever gained greater insight into the native mind; no man has so won the admiration of the native race. To the Maori "the voice of Te Kawana (the Governor) was, as the word of God. To hear was to obey." And to his own race? Who shall say? Even William Pember Reeves, with the most facile (and polished) pen the Colony has produced, climbs gingerly on to the fence to confess: "I have known those who thought Grey another Gracchus and a more practical Gordon; and I have known those who thought him a mean copy of Dryden's Achitophel. His island retreat (4) where Froude describes him as a kind of evangelical Cincinnatus, seemed to others merely the convenient lurking-place of a political rogue elephant." (5) Drummond says the only people Grey did not quarrel with were the public and the Maoris because he treated both as children. Twice during his gubernatorial career, Grey bestowed priceless collections of rare books and manuscripts upon an infant Colony. In 1887 twelve thousand volumes were thus donated to the citizens of Auckland, always the city of his heart, and twentyfive years earlier Cape Town was similarly honoured.
In 1839, while Government Resident at St. George's Sound, Grey married the daughter of his predecessor, Admiral Sir Richard Spencer. It is apparent that in New Zealand, Lady Grey and Mrs. Godley did not see eye to eye. The latter, writing home in the early fifties, calls her "extremely gracious and clever, with a satirical expression and way of talking about everybody which is evidently the reason of her so being so little liked." (6)
The former Kumutoto Street, later changed to Bowen Street, bears the name of our sixth Governor, Sir George Ferguson Bowen. He was the first to occupy the second Government House, built in 1868, and in his honour the street bounding the south side of the grounds was called Bowen Street. An Irishman of ripe scholarship, he had already been Governor of Queensland and was subsequently Governor of Victoria. In spite of constant official duties, he was the author of several books. Before leaving the Colony he established the Bowen Essay Prize, awarded biennially, and open to undergraduates of the University and graduates of not more than three years' standing, for the best essay on a given subject connected with English or Colonial History.
Such being his tastes, it seems peculiarly fitting that the greatest treasuredhoard of books and manuscripts that the city, or possibly the Dominion, possesses, should have found a resting-place in the street which bears his name. In Bowen Street stands what in the opinion of many is Wellington's greatest possession, steadily increasing in value as the years go by - the Alexander Turnbull Library, bequeathed in 1918 to the State by its owner, Alexander Horsburgh Turnbull, and opened to the public in 1920. After the death of Mr. Turnbull, Senr., of the firm of W. M G. Turnbull (now Wright, Stephenson & Co.), the old family home "Elibank," standing in spacious grounds in Bowen Street, together with most of the land, was sold to Dr. Herbert, who thereupon erected the Bowen Street Hospital, while in the ground he retained, Mr. Alexander Turnbull in 1916 built the handsome brick building, part library and part residence, to house the priceless collection he had for some years been making.(7)
The library is particularly rich in books dealing with Australia, New Zealand and all Pacific groups, as well as in incunabula or early printed books, first editions, personal, rare and beautiful books, added to which are numbers of valuable sketches, engravings, etchings, oil and water-colours by notable artists, past and present.
Since the initial Turnbull Bequest of about sixty thousand such volumes, other bequests have followed (as they always do) bringing the number up to fully one hundred thousand volumes. These include the Mantell Collection (1927), Atkinson Collection (1935), Kinsey Collection (1936), Henry Wright Collection (1936), Trimble Collection (1941), to say nothing of individual rarities that are from time to time bequeathed or donated to the library.
It is impossible to enumerate the rarest books of this great collection, whose owner worthily ranked as one of the greatest collectors of books in the English-speaking world. To instance works connected with Cook alone, we find:-
The original Log of the "Eagle" - kept by Cook himself (1755-56). The original Log of the "Endeavour" during Cook's First Voyage, when he re-discovered New Zealand (1769) thought to have been kept by Hicks.
The original Log and Journal of Cook's Second Voyage, kept by Bayly, the Astronomer.
The original Log and Journal of Cook's Third Voyage - kept by Bayly, the Astronomer.
A manuscript copy (not the original) of the Journal of Sir Joseph Banks, who accompanied Cook on his First Voyage to New Zealand.
A bound collection of Letters and Documents (originals) relating to Captain Cook, including letters of Cook to the Admiralty and letters of Sir Hugh Palliser to Cook.
A book of original water-colour sketches of New Zealand Flora, by W. Hodges, the botanist of the Second Voyage.
A bound book of samples of tappa cloth collected by Cook on his three voyages and bound in 1787.
Cook's notebook, presumably given to a friend.
That rarest of books, "A Voyage Round the World with Captain Cook," by Zimmerman, describing Cook's last voyage.
Alexander Turnbull died, unmarried, in 1918, at the comparatively early age of fifty. He left his native city for ever in his debt.
On the whole, Wellington streets have little to show in architectural harmony, but Bowen Street is an outstanding exception. To pause on Lambton Quay, in front of the Government Buildings, and let the eye wander up Bowen Street, is still, in spite of a couple of anachronisms, one of the most satisfying street vistas any city has to show. The double entrance to the street is divided by the City's War Memorial, one of the loveliest and most inspiring of its kind, a lofty column of Sicilian marble, surmounted by a bronze group of the winged Pegasus, bearing the figure of Youth victorious, the flanking panels telling the story of the War. Beyond this is the Turnbull Library, fit casket for contents of such inestimable worth, a gracious Queen Anne edifice of mellowing brick with its oriel windows picked out with freestone. Equally harmonious is the adjoining hospital of Georgian design, beautifully proportioned, with a fine Corinthian portico abutting on to the street, and until recent years, much enhanced by the softening effect of flanking elms. Across the intersection of the Terrace, stands the Wellington Congregational Church, designed by Mr. Benjamin Mountfort (1824-1898) of Christchurch, and opened in 1888 during the pastorate of the late Dr. West, to whose enthusiasm its erection was largely due. Built entirely of wood, mostly of rich red rimu, at a time when costs were fantastically small in comparison with those of today, over £6000 (8) as spent upon an edifice that must ever remain a source of quiet pleasure to the lover of the harmonious and the beautiful.
Mr. Mountfort's chef-d'oeuvre is the Canterbury Provincial Council Building erected in Christchurch in the fifties, one of the choicest edifices Greater Britain has to show.
Alas! the hospital trees have all been axed away. Gone too, a group of old colonial houses that until recently kept watch and ward across the far end of the street, their place now taken by a concrete structure resembling nothing so much, say the hyper-critical, as a concrete concertina on the stretch, though airy and sunny within. Ah well! Tastes differ. Such variety may creep into the best of regulated city plans. Some may recall the time when Stratford-on-Avon set in its Tudor midst a Memorial Theatre of Byzantine design, or storied Edinburgh Castle, no less, affixed a War Memorial Chapel, inspiring within, which Earl Rosebery in his scorn designated "a concrete jelly mould." Nay, later still, Cambridge itself, in 1934, planted a most incongruously modernis £500,000 Library, cheek by jowl with the most beautiful Renaissance College in England - that of Clare. Therefore all praise to the powers that have replaced the older buildings at the entrance of Bowen Street by a row of shops that form the ground floor of the truly artistic and harmonious red brick block of "Bowen House."
The second Marquis of Normanby, P.C., commemorated in Normanby Street (S.1), was Governor of New Zealand from 1875 to 1879, and after an English political career, was appointed successively Governor of Nova Scotia, Queensland and New Zealand. An interesting friendship between the Governor and Charles Dickens dates from 1842, when both met as fellow-passengers on their way from England to America. Much of "Dombey and Son" was subsequently written in Paris and dedicated to the Marchioness of Nomanby, mother of our Governor-to-be, whose husband, the first Marquis, was at that time British Ambassador at the French capital. Other names from the same source are Normanby Road in Auckland, Nomanby Bridge in Nelson and Normanby township in Taranaki.
Jervois Quay brings us to the governorship of Lieutenant-General Sir William Jervois, Governor from 1883 to 1889. Trained as a military engineer, his specialty was fortifications, and he was sent to New Zaland at a time when the defence of the colonies was greatly exercising the minds of the Home Government. He was also at one time Governor of the Straits Settlements and later of South Australia. Lady Jervois was much interested in good works, and founded the Girls' Friendly Society in Wellington in 1883, a large three-storey lodge being designed for the purpose by Mr. F. de J. Clere, F.R.I.B.A.
The term of office of the Earl of Onslow (Onslow Road) was brief - May, 1889, to February, 1892. In the early nineties, there was a clash over appointments to the Upper House, the Governor appointing a number of members to the Legislative Council on the recommendation of the Government which had just been defeated at the polls, and this in the face of the protest made by the party that had won.
Lord Onslow was the first belted Earl to represent his sovereign as Governor of the Colony, and his appointment ushered in an era of governors of higher rank - three earls in succession! Short as was the noble Earl's term of office, he was responsible for giving the Colony one of its greatest thrills when at 8 a.m. upon the morning of November 13th, 1890, at Government House, Wellington, his younger son and fourth child came into the world, "the first occasion upon which the child of any New Zealand Governor first opened its eyes in the Colony." (9)
At the receipt of the news the people of New Zealand petitioned Queen Victoria to do the Colony the honour of becoming the vice-regal infant's godmother, a petition to which the Queen graciously acceded. This was followed by the idea of giving the child a Maori name. Suggestions poured in like a flood. At first Taihoa (wait a bit) found most favour as being the nearest approach to "Onslow". Eventually, Huia was selected as his fourth name, though he was always called by it.
Victor Alexander Herbert Huia was christened on Monday morning, January 26th, in St. Paul's ProCathedral, Wellington, the Countess of Onslow representing Queen Victoria and Mr. C. J. Johnston representing the people of New Zealand. Fond mamas may be interested in the description of the christening outfit as given by Muriel Onslow in her study of Huia Onslow (1924) :-
"He was attired in a long white muslin robe, having three frills edged with most lovely real lace. Over this he had a thick white matelasse cloth coat with raised work on the surface, and trimmed with white lace of great value. On his head was a tiny white lace bonnet ornamented with tiny ostrich tips. Underneath the white robe was a robe of heavy satin of an ivory tint - satin of a peculiar glistening sheen seldom seen nowadays . . . worn by the baby's greatgrandfather in the last century. After the baptism a truly national finish to the ceremony was effected when the Hon. C. J. Johnston affixed a beautiful Huia feather in the baby's headdress, thus, according to Maori custom, creating him a chief of the land of his birth".But alas for such an auspicious beginning. At the age of twenty, as the result of diving into a lake in the Dolomites, July 16th, 1910, Huia Onslow struck his head on a submerged rock, injured the spinal cord at the sixth cervical vertebra, and for the remaining eleven years of his life was a paralysed wreck of his former self. A physical wrcck maybe, but far from a mental collapse. These eleven years were years of achievement, of deep scientific research, largely along the lines of iridescent problems in insect life and Mendelian problems with the same. In 1919 he married Miss Muriel Wheldale, Research Student for some years in Newnham College, Cambridge, in Plant BioGhemistry, whose collaboration was of inestimable advantage to his work. At the age of thirtyone his labours ended.
The succeeding Governor, David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow and Fairlie (1892-1897) a Scotchman of Ayrshire, gave his name to Glasgow Street and Glasgow Wharf, and a family seat, Fairlie House, is responsible for the name of Fairlie Terrace. Moreover, the title of the eldest son, Viscount Kelburn, was used for the newly opened-up suburb of Kelburn (W.1) or Kelburn Avenue and for Kelburn Parade. A proud name in Scottish annals is Fairlie, the first of the family becoming ennobled in 1314 by Robert the Bruce, who added a bonus to the transaction by bestowing upon the new Earl the hand of his daughter Isobel in marriage. For three centuries, their descendants occupied Fairlie Castle on the Clyde - the proud "Fairlies of Fairlie"- but the Restoration (1663) depriving them of their lands, they moved into Ayrshire and by dint of brains and alliances, restored the family fortunes. Branches of the family are to be found in Australia (the Cunninghame Fairlies, changed in 1859 to Fairlie-Cunninghames) and also at Kaiti, Gisborne, New Zealand.
The Boyles, as a family, were fine pedestrians and it was no uncommon sight to see the Earl, accompanied by his tall rather homely-looking daughters, attired in tweeds and high tan boots and supplied with stout walkingsticks, setting forth for a breather to some of the upland view-points of the City. One of these daughters was destined to return as the wife of a future Governor. Her husband too was the son of a past Governor, so that for both of them, the appointment must have meant much of the sweetness of returning home. At any rate, no vice-regal pair ever seemed more harmoniously attuned to their environment than Sir Charles and Lady Fergusson. So interested and sincere, so kindly and unaffected to all. The day, for instance, they came into the Wellington Girls' College to see a squad of Physical Drill at work (at all times a notable feature of this fine school) and after the display and a few kindly words of appreciation, somewhat mystified the Principal by asking if the squad might "About turn!" "There, Alice," exclaimed the gleeful Governor, "I knew I should find a pigtail!" Lady Alice herself told the story of how after singing to the assembled inmates of Ohiro Home, she received an individual request from one old lady, unable to leave her room. "And what shall I sing to you?" said Lady Fergusson arriving at the bedside of the patient. "God Save the King," was the somewhat unexpected reply.
Kilkerran House, the picturesque family seat of the Fergussons, is situated in Ayrshire, about an hour's travel from Glasgow.
The following Governor, the Earl of Ranfurly (1897-1904), albeit a descendant of John Knox, hailed from Ireland and is commemorated in Ranfurly Terrace. The suburb of Northland is named after his son Viscount Northland, killed in the Great War in 1915. In 1902 this Governor donated the Rugby trophy, the Ranfurly Shield.
The Earl of Ranfurly was succeeded by Lord Plunket (1904-1910) , also from Ireland, the son of the Archbishop of Dublin and Primate of Ireland, who gives his name to Plunket Street. Of infinitely wider interest, however, is the fact that during his term of office there was founded in New Zealand in 1905 by the New Zealander, Dr. Sir Frederick Truby King (1858-1938) destined to become the world's greatest authority on infant nutrition, "The Society for the Promotion of the Health of Women and Children." (10) This met with the enthusiastic support of Lord and Lady Plunket, themselves the parents of a vigorous brood, and the Society quickly became known, after its first patroness, Lady Plunket, as the "Plunket Society" which, as all the world knows, has spread its mothering arms completely round the globe, wherever babies are to be found.
Another lasting reminder(12) is competed for annually by students of Victoria University College, and is eligible to all who participate actively in its Debating Society, that is, have taken part in two-thirds of the debates of the current year. Not only has the New Zealand Parliament acquired a Plunket Medallist in the person of M. H. Oram, M.A., LL.B., M.P., for Manawatu, but the Imperial Parliament has followed suit in the election of John Platts-Mills, LL.B., for the Pinsbury division of the London electorate (1945) The first winner was the late E. J. Fitzgibbon, LL.B., in 1905.
The name of Dufferin Street, changed in 1912 from Sussex Square, is associated with the Governorship of Lord Plunket, inasmuch as Lady Plunket, nee Lady Victoria Alexandrina Blackwood, was the daughter of the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, one of the most distinguished diplomats of the last century. Lady Victoria married (1) the 5th Baron Plunket, who died in 1920; (2) Colonel Francis Braithwaite in 1932.
A newly named street in Wellington E.4, Liverpool Street,commemorates the seventeenth Governor of the Colony, the Earl of Liverpool, who since the status of the Colony was changed in 1917, arrived in New Zealand as Governor in 1912 and left it as Governor-General in 1920. There is little to say of the seven teenth Governor. He was dutiful, but reserved, which was interpreted by many as exclusive. Likewise Lady Liverpool. His extended term of office covered the period of the Great War when matters military took precedence of all others. Lady Liverpool was indefatigable in her assistance with war welfare work and was a constant attendant at the City Town Hall where she donned an apron and packed with vigour with the rest. Here and elsewhere, the war had ushered in an Age of Knitting. Everyone knitted who could and who couldn't - and the Colony's best seller of the day was probably "Lady Liverpool's Knitting book," which was responsible for a vast number of well-made (and less well-made) woollen comforts finding their way overseas.
The first Earl of the name was David Jenkinson, a great traveller, raised to the peerage in the eighteenth century. He left no children and was succeeded by his brother, but as the second earl left only daughters, the title became extinct. It was however, revived in 1905 for Cecil Foljambe, grandson of the second Earl, who, dying in 1907, was succeeded by his son, Arthur Foljambe, Earl of Liverpool, in 1912 appointed Governor of New Zealand. The title is now held by his brother.
The name of Scapa Terrace (W.3) brings back memories of Earl Jellicoe of Scapa, Governor-General of the Dominion from 1920 to 1924. He was New Zealand's first "Admiral" Governor and the jovial sailor won golden opinions on land as he had done on sea when Commander of the Fleet during the Great War. It was at Scapa Flow, a naval base in the Orkney Islands, that he stationed his fleet before passing out (May, 1916) to engage in the Battle of Jutland, and it was at Scapa Flow, when hostilities were over, that the surrendered German fleet was scuttled, June 21st, 1919.
There is, as yet, no street to commemorate another delightful vice-regal pair, Lord and Lady Bledisloe. He was accounted one of Britain's foremost farmers, a man of wide culture and the deep phiIosophy so often engendered by interests in the soil. She was a lady sweet and kind, and picturesque to look upon, with her radiant smile and lovely frocks. Lady Bledisloe at dinner in diamonds and cherry velvet. Lady Bledisloe at the opening of Parliament in billows of green chiffon and cape of ostrich plumes. Lady Bledisloe in snowwhite suit and panama circumventing the Auckland sun. These are pictures that will fade but slowly from the memories of those who, in the earlier thirties, revelled in their unaccustomed and uncoveted charm, to say nothing of the winsome charm of the wearer.
Nor is there any thoroughfare that bears the name of Lord Islington, our "first citizen" from 1910 to 1912, It was during his term of office that the Children's Hospital was added in 1911 to the Public Hospital Buildings of the city. His Excellency, who had for many years been chairman of a large English Hospital, gave the project his enthusiastic support and was instrumental in helping to raise a large part of the required funds. As a token of such practical interest one of the children's wards is named the "Islington Ward."
June 17th 1946. On this day Wellington, and indeed all New Zealand, made history, when Lieutenant.General Sir Bernard Freyberg, V.C., late Commander-in-Chief of the New Zealand Division of the Allied Army, was sworn in as Governor-General of the Dominion in the grounds of Parliament House, the oath of allegiance and the oath of office being administered by Chief Justice, Sir Michael Myers. Sir Bernard was the first New Zealander to attain to such an exalted position.
In 1922, he married Barbara, widow of the Hon. Francis Walter McLaren, M.P., and daughter of the late Colonel Sir Herbert Jeykell, K.C.M.G. They have one son, Paul.
Freyberg Street (E.3) is not a Governor Street, but is called after his brother, the late Paul Milton Freyberg, who fell in the Great War (1914-1918). Another brother who made the supreme sacrifice was Sub-Lieutenant Oscar Freyberg, R.N.V.R., killed June, 1915.
1. Noble birth imposes the obligation of noble actions.
2. N.Z. "Times," July, 1905.
3. Dr. Simpson, Head of British Meteorological Department, 1927.
4. Kawau In the Haurski Gulf.
5. "The Long White Cloud."
6. Letters from Early New Zealand (p. 124) (Charlotte Godley).
7. "The Government has purchased Bowen Street Private Hospital and three-quarters of an acre of grounds from - the widow of Dr. W. E. Herbert for £39,500, frontage 223 feet to Wellington Terrace and 176 feet to Bowen Street." ("Evening Post", 4/3/37.)
8. This includes total costs. Vide "Cyclopedia of New Zealand." p. 403.
9. The writer is wrong. Mrs. Robson gave birth to an infant in Auckland during her husband's term of office. (Vide Auckland "Herald," 22/12/41.)
10. Now officially called "The Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children."
11. Yet another is the Plunket Shield for Inter-provincial cricket.
12. See Appendix.
Part Two : Chapter Ten : Premiers