PapakaingaHemi Parai belonged to the Ngati Haumia hapū of Taranaki iwi who came to Port Nicholson in the Heke Paukena (around 1833/34). His parents were Whangateataura and Tapuiatini. Three of Hem's siblings were Torangarere Pare (whose wife was Ruihi), Hohepa Te Raro or Ngaparu (whose child was Huihana Ngaparu) and Karoraina Pikia (whose husband was Hakaraia Te Poho-o-te-Rangi).
As a young man Hemi Parai joined with Mohi Ngaponga in leading a group of their people to settle in Te Whanganui-a-Tara, firstly at Ngauranga and then at Te Aro. At the gathering on Matiu/Somes Island in 1835, before the departure of the Ngati Mutunga and Ngati Tama for the Chatham Islands, Patukawenga awarded specific areas around the harbour to local iwi. Mohi Ngaponga was awarded the area of Te Aro between Kumutoto and Waitangi streams and Paekawakawa.
Hemi Parai was a very active correspondent, as shown in his writings to Governor Grey or his officials concerning Maori land. References to these writings may be traced in Land Court Minute Books, AtoJsonline, Donald McLean papers, and ATL manuscripts. (see below)
Hemi Parai signed the Deeds of Release at Te Aro in 1844 and in September 1847 he was appointed a native land assessor just before the first of the McCleverty awards were signed. His signature appears on a number of leases relating to Tenths land on behalf of others but he also appeared to have unique rights. In 1863 he was one of 3 remaining signatories, still living in Wellington, to have land granted 'to the Te Aro Natives' (Ngati Ruanui and Taranaki) at Porirua. Some who had signed as Te Aro Natives, had since died and the rest now lived in Taranaki. In 1873, Hemi sold Te Aro pa Sections 1, 2, 7 (24 perches) to the Superintendent of Wellington, and with Hori Ngapaka also sold Section 8 (20 perches).On 17 August 1875, Sections 120 and 121 Hutt Valley (197 acres) were proclaimed a native reserve and a Crown Grant was issued to Hemi Parai who in turn assigned the land - now parcelled into 12 blocks, to his people. The land had been let to Hemi Parai and others on the understanding that as soon as the amount of rent paid by them into the Treasury equalled the purchase money, the land should become absolutely theirs. (G3, 1876).
Hemi's first wife was Tawhirikura Karopihia, the grand daughter of Aniwaniwa and Tawhirikura, and she was closely related to Te Puni, Matangi and Kahukino, Te Wharepouri and Matengakuao, Hone Tohu Kakahi, Te Mihinga (parent of Mahau Tomairangi), Henare Te Keha and Ouetapu Munu.
The two children of Hemi Parai and Tawhirikura were: Tahana Niwa, (who died before 1878, and left no children), and Arapera Rongouaroa whose husband was William Ellerslie Wallace. For a time, Arapera and William lived at Ngauranga in a house owned by Manihera Te Toru, and William Wallace ran a coaching hotel. Arapera succeeded to Pakuahi's interest in Lot 8, Te Aro Pa because "she was his nearest young relative". Arapera was also one of many signatories to the Taranaki Deed of Sale no 27, Moa-Whakangerengere-Whakaahurangi no. 2, Block, Puketapu District.
Their son, Taare Warahi (Charles Wallace) who was born 1848 at Ngauranga, later lived at Johnsonville. His land holdings included sections at Wiremutaone, Otaki, Hawera, Opunake and Polhill Gully. Charles Wallace died 1932 at the age of 84 years and was survived by his wife Margaret (nee O'Toole) and six of their thirteen children: Ella Simeon, Doris Julia O'Connor, Hannah Bramley, Isabel Wallace, James Wallace and Cyril Wallace, with a remaining share of the estate going to the children of William Wallace (jnr) (deceased).
Arapera and William's daughter was Turia Warahi (Julia Wallace). Julia Wallace married James Te Tana Harrison who was the son of James Harrison and Mere Kapa Ngamai. Turia was the mother of Karo Turia Warahi (Mrs Geary), Tapuiatini Turia Warahi, Hone Turia Warahi and Tokarete Turia Warahi. Julia died in September 1910.
Hemi Parai later married Pirihira Matangi - the widow of Wi Kingi Te Awhitu and their two sons were named Te Awhi Parai and Mohi Parai..
The children of Pirihira Matangi and her first husband Wi Kingi Te Awhitu were Hana Te Awhitu (who married Tamati Te Wera), Ani Te Kai (Bluett) (whose daughter was Ani Waka Bluett - Durling) and Te Waaka Houtipu. Ani Durling was survived by seven children, each of who owned a block of land in Johnsonville. The youngest child was Faith Margaret Durling. Te Waaka Houtipu and his first wife had two children - Hare Waka (who died young) and Parehira Kare. He and his second wife (Hana Waitara) had no children.
Agnes - Mrs Simeon, was the daughter of Rawinia Te Rangikawawe and James McAlpine and was closely related to Te Aro elders such as Mohi Ngaponga, Te Teira Whatakore, and possibly Hemi Parai. She was also related to Te Whiti o Rongomai, Tohu Kakahi and Wi Tako Ngatata. In the Section 8, Block 11 land at Johnsonville, Agnes and Frederick Simeon left each of their ten children a section.
Got something to add?
This page is written and maintained by our Kaimahi, Ratonga Māori.
Hemi Parai seated, photographed sometime between 1862 and 1872 by Edward Smallwood Richards. From the collection of Mrs A.D. Kerr. Photographs of Wellington and Hemi Parai.
Reference number: PA Coll-4445-1. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
Te Aro Pa, 1841, by Dr George Richard Hilliard. Shows a fenced area with nine dwelling houses and a food-storage house. A single large flax is to the right of the buildings, outside the palisade. A stream flows across the view from right to left, emptying into the harbour in front of the pa.
Reference number: ID: A-113-023 , Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
View of Wellington Harbour from Thorndon Beach. 12 July 1845.
John Wallace is the brother of William Ellerslie Wallace - husband of Arapera Rongouaroa. Man at right identified as 'Robinson' Joe Robinson, husband of Kauamo, of Waiwhetu Marae.Reference number: B-079-007, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
Hana Te Awhitu (step-daughter of Hemi Parai). Wiremu Tamati Te Wera and his wife Ana, at their home in Ohiro Road, Brooklyn, Wellington. After Te Awhitu's death, Hana's mother Pirihia married Hemi Parai. This is a photo of Hana and her husband Wiremu Tamati Te Wera, at their home in Ohiro Road, Brooklyn, Wellington around 1900.
Reference number: 1/2-011193-F , Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand
Akanihi Himiona (Mrs Agnes Simeon)
Agnes was christened Agnes Flora McAlpine, but amongst her people she was known by her tribal ancestral name Kurakitoro. Akanihi married Frederick Simeon in Wanganui 1866 and after spending time in Napier they settled in Wellington in 1972. Akanihi is recorded as being "the only woman that came from Taranaki residing in Te Aro pa" as of the mid to late 1870s. She was related to many of the Te Aro elders such as Mohi Ngaponga and probably Hemi Parai.
Norman, Edmund, 1820-1875. Pa, Te Aro, Wellington looking towards the Hutt River [1842 or 1843?]
Shows Maori with pigs in the foreground and a carved canoe prow, dwellings and other buildings of the pa, the palisade, the harbour and ships in the background. Reference : A-049-001
Banquet given at Wellington to native chiefs. [Pipitea Street, 1849, from a drawing by Mr J. H. Marriott, London 1850]
From: Illustrated London news, 9 February 1850, p.84
The event took place on 17 April 1849 in the house of Dr Fitzgerald, next-door to the hospital according to an article in the Wellington Independent, 25 April 1849, p. 3. Dr Fitzgerald was in the chair, with Mr Henry St Hill as vice-chair. Octavius Hadfield was also present, along with Te Puni, Wi Tako and a large group of other Maori men, including Hemi, all listed in the article. Reference number: PUBL-0033-1850-084, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand
Te Aro Beach by Samuel Brees, engraved by Henry Melville, 1842
The beach at Te Aro - view looking along the beach from the Te Aro Pa area - with Maori canoes in the foreground, towards Clay Point, surmounted by Charles Heaphy's house, with shops at beach level, including those of Mrssrs Sutton Lyon, Boulcott, and [William Ellerslie] Wallace.
Brees was Principal Engineer and Surveyor to the New Zealand Company. Reference number: ID: A-109-037 , Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand
About these images
The images you see in the gallery to the left are displayed with kind permission. Click through for a larger version of each image and a link to the source online.
Our sources were:
- Alexander Turnbull Library's collection - Timeframes
- The kind permission of the Mrs Frederick Simeon family
Wellington City Libraries' Māori Resources:
- List of Māori chiefs and tribes
- Te Whanganui-a-Tara Deed of Purchase 4. (Te Aro)
- Te Whanganui-a-Tara Deed of Purchase 13. (Te Aro Pa lots 1,2,7 and 8)
- Te Whanganui-a-Tara Deed of Purchase 19. (Te Aro Pa lots 89 and 90)
- 1850 Census (go to page 7)
Books and Articles
- Ballara, Angela. Te Whanganui-a-Tara : phases of Māori occupation of the Wellington Harbour c.1800-1840 The Making of Wellington, 1800-1914, edited by David Hamer and Roberta Nicholls. (Victoria University Press, 1990).
- Buchanan, Rachel The Parihaka album : lest we forget (Huia Books, 2009).
- Clark, S. Nga tupuna o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. vol 1 (Wellington City Libraries, 2001). pp 22-23
- Ward, A. Maori customary interests in the Port Nicholson District, 1820s to 1840s : an overview. (Waitangi Tribunal, 1998).
- Maori Land court. Wellington Minute book No 1, p. 16, 87
- Mr Charles Wallace 1848-1932, in, Historical journal - Otaki Historical Society, no. 17 (1994) p. 52
- Charles Taare Warahi Wallace, 1848-1932. Te Horo : Raumahora Press, 2010
From the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre (NZETC):
- Petition of Hemi Parai : presented to the Legislative Council by the Hon. Mr. Mantell, on the 11th of August, 1874.
- Maori Deeds of Old Private Land Purchases - Enclosure No. 4. Release from Te Aro Natives to the New Zealand Company
- Na Ngatiawa. No. 1 - Proceedings of of the Kohimarama Conference, Comprising Nos. 13 to 18 of the 'Maori Messenger.'
- Maori Deeds of Old Private Land Purchases - Receipt. - In full satisfaction of all Claims - [Deeds - No. 1.]
A to Js Online
- Reports on the State of Natives at the time of the Arrival of Sir George Grey, 1862, Session 1. (Wellington, p. 25)
- Return of all Officers Employed in Native Districts in January 1864.(p. 29, Wellington)
- Despatches between the Governor of NZ and the Right Hon. The Secretary of State for the Colonies (1866, Session 1, p. 18. Letters to Mr Mantell, Governor Grey on behalf of Hemi Parai and Rihari Mohaikereru regarding land at Waitotora.
- List of Maori tribes and chiefs. Hemi Parai listed in Taranaki, p. 59.
- Nominal roll of the civil Establishment of NZ on the 1st July, 1873. Hemi Parai is listed with Wi Tako as Native Assessor. There are several other similar references across the eyars.
- Report of the Commissioner of Native Reserves, 1873. Te Aro Pa sections, with Hemi Parai
- Report of the Commissioner of Native Reserves, 1874. P. 5 Wellington expenditure (rent)
- Report of the Commissioner of Native Reserves, 1875. Omaroro rights awarded by Native Land Court
- Report of the Commissioner of Native Reserves, 1876. p. 2 Sections 120, 121 Hutt Valley - Crown grant.
- Testimonial Speech to Dr Fitzgerald (1854, 16 August) New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Fire Meeting (1860, 3 July) Daily Southern Cross. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- The Great Meeting of Native Chiefs (1860, 4 September) Wellington Independent. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Opening of Supreme Court building (1863, 10 October) Wellington Independent. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Native Lands' Court (Claim)and decision (1866, 3, 5 July) Wellington Independent. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Crown grants awarded (1867, 30 July) Wellington Independent. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Public notice, Native Lands Court (1868, 27 June) Wellington Independent. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Arrival of Duke of Edinburgh (1869, 20 april) Hawke's Bay Herald. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- The Ball (1869, 13 May) Wellington Independent. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Hemi Parai migrates to Taranaki (1871, 19 August) Evening Post. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Native Land Court, Hospital (1871, 24 October) Evening Post. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Bridge Hotel, Waitara (1874, 8 April) Taranaki Herald. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Royal Commission, concerning Opunake (1880, 24 July) Hawera & Normanby Star. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- 100 acres granted (1880, 21 August) Timaru Herald. Retrieved from Papers Past.
- Death of Charles Wallace (grandson) (1932, 3 October 1932) Evening Post. Retrieved from Papers Past.
From The New Zealand Digital Library's Māori Niupepa collection:
- The Maori Messenger - Ko te Karere Maori 1855-1860: Volume 7, No. 13: 5: 2
- The Maori Messenger - Ko te Karere Maori 1855-1860: Volume 7, No. 17: 34
- Te Waka Maori o Niu Tirani 1871-1877: Volume 12b, No. 22: 290
- The Maori Messenger - Ko te Karere Maori 1855-1860: Volume 7, No. 16: 8
- Te Karere o Poneke 1857-1858: Volume 1, No. 1: 4
- Te Haeata 1859-1862: Volume 2, No. 2: 2
- The Maori Messenger - Ko te Karere Maori 1855-1860: Volume 7, No. 15: 44
- The Maori Messenger - Ko te Karere Maori 1855-1860: Volume 7, No. 18: 52
- Te Karere o Poneke 1857-1858: Volume 1, No. 46: 3
Letters & Manuscripts
Donald McLean Papers:
These letters are from the Donald McLean Papers, and are pertaining to land issues.
- Letter from Matohi and Parae, Taranaki, 23 Mar 1848
- Reference Number: MS-Papers-0032-0672A-10. Object #1030941
- Available via Alexander Turnbull Library
- Contains a roughly written English translation relating to a purchase.
- 2 pages written 23 Mar 1848 by Matohi, related to Hemi Parae, Taranaki region, Te Ati Awa, to Sir Donald McLean.
- Letter from Hemi Karena Parai to McLean, 7 Apr 1848
- Reference Number: MS-Papers-0032-0672B-06. Object #1030281
- Available via Alexander Turnbull Library
- Letter regarding the selling of lands by Maori who may not have the right.
- 3 pages written 7 Apr 1848 by Hemi Parai in Te Aro to Sir Donald McLean, related to Te Ati Awa.
The Alexander Turnbull Library
TAPUHI search (8 records in total)
Map of Te Aro Pa
This shows the locations of Hemi Parai's sections, from the Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1871, p. 55.