On Thursday 2 July after many weeks and months of practicing, Wellington Secondary Schools will have their opportunity on stage to be selected to represent the region at the National Secondary Schools Kapa Haka Competition to be held at the Pettigrew Arena in Hawke’s Bay next July.
The regional event is being held at Te Rauparaha Arena in Porirua and Te Reo Irirangi Māori o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika are broadcasting the entire competition. Click here and scroll down to the Upoko o te Ika link to listen to the competition on line.
Unidentified Maori women in traditional kapa haka performance dress, including puipui and poi, location unknown. Whites Aviation Ltd :Photographs. Ref: WA-25309-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22633364
Our Māori Resource pages have some great resources if you are interested in waiata Māori and I have also included some titles on waiata and other Kapa Haka related topics.
Click here for a digital copy of Sir George Gray’s Waiata Māori collection Ko Nga Waiata Maori he mea kohikohi mai, i tera kaumatua i tera kuia, no ona haerenga, e mahi ki nga pito katoa a Aotea-roa. Because of the rarity of the Wellington City Libraries’ original copy, a digitisation process has allowed us to present the book in an electronic format. Note that the spelling and grammar used by the publisher has been retained in this online version. Some of the spellings used were written phonetically or are based on incorrect interpretations of a spoken word.
Click here to search our Waiata Database which is an index of waiata from sources held by Wellington City Libraries, including Sir Apirana Ngata’s Ngāa Mōteatea. This database is a work in progress, and in time we will also include the library’s collection of CD or DVD recordings of waiata.
Kia Rōnaki = The Māori performing arts / edited by Rachael Ka’ai-Mahuta, Tania Ka’ai & John Moorfield.
In the last thirty years there has been an explosion of interest in the Maori performing arts but until now there has been no general book written in English or Maori about the Maori performing arts by Maori authors and exponents of the various genres. This new work, brings together the expertise of a range of performance artists and academics, consolidating their knowledge into a comprehensive single volume that will be of relevance to all those interested in the Maori performing arts.
The Maori action song : waiata a ringa, waiata kori, no whea tenei ahua hou? / Jennifer Shennan. “This book is a discussion of Maori action songs, the dance form which, from modest beginnings in the early decades of the twentieth century, has developed into what is effectively the national dance of New Zealand. Through many hundreds of compositions, the action song has become an important medium of communication for many Maori people. A number of the earliest action songs are remembered and performed as classics up to 60 years later. They include simple love ditties and notably the songs of proud farewell and the joyous sad welcomes to soldiers returning from both World Wars. Recent developments have taken the action song away from the simplicity of its earliest form with borrowed European melodies, to more sophisticated compositions including dramatic effects with interpolated haka rhythms. New gestures are devised to express a widening range of themes and ideas, and these are worked into the style which has become conventionalised. It is this process-the instinctive moulding of innovated movement into the aesthetically acceptable dance style-which makes absorbing study.” (Syndetics summary)
Ngoingoi Pēwhairangi : an extraordinary life / Tania Ka’ai.
“This is a significant biography. Ngoingoi Pewhairangi was a loved and respected Maori leader who was born on the cusp of te ao kohatu (the old Maori world) and the beginning of some significant changes in contemporary Maori society, and who utilised knowledge from both worlds throughout her entire life. From Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare hapu at Tokomaru Bay, Ngoi dedicated her adult life to supporting these people and influencing their lives to ensure a better future for Maori society. She was passionate about people and the advancement of Maori society and demonstrated this through her involvement in a variety of initiatives from Maori education, Maori language, Maori performing and traditional arts, Maori politics and within her own whanau. Accompanied by a CD of music composed by Ngoingoi, this book is a celebration of Ngoi’s life through the testimonies of many people who knew her using their own words. The bilingual text allows people to come to know what a truly remarkable mother she was to so many people in Aotearoa/New Zealand.” (Syndetics summary)
This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each ‘This Week in History’ post is associated with a display in the NZ Collection and uses available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information.
Lovelock wins ‘Mile of the century’
15th June 1935
I grew up in a town where a number of the streets were named after some of New Zealand’s most famous middle distance runners, these were runners who had become household names. There was a Lovelock Street and a Halberg Cresent and I lived on Peter Snell Street for a number of years. In Wellington we have Porritt Ave in Mount Victoria and I’m sure there are lots of towns with parks and streets named after these athletes. This week I chose the anniversary of Lovelock’s “Mile of the Century’ win for this post and I found it difficult to choose what to write about and what to leave out as there are so many connections to some really interesting events and people. So if you want to know more about Lovelock and Porritt check out the links attached to their names below and read the entries in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. This resource is available from the Library Website at the My Gateway New Zealand page.
Associated Press. Jack Lovelock after his victory in the `mile of the century’ – Photograph taken by the Associated Press. New Zealand Free Lance : Photographic prints and negatives. Ref: PAColl-8163-31. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22453630
Jack Lovelock had become well known as a runner after he set a world record for the mile in 1933 with a time of 4 minutes, 7.6 seconds. He was the top miler and received many invitations to races that were being organised in Europe and the United States. One of the races was to become known as the ‘Mile of the Century’ and it was to pit Lovelock up against a number of American runners and was held at the Princeton College track where he had previously set the world record.
Downloaded from Papers Past from “Auckland Star, Volume LXVI, Issue 141, 17 June 1935, Page 14”
Lovelock was the first New Zealand track and field athlete to win an Olympic gold medal which he did at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. The Berlin Olympics was of course known for the debate and protest over the Nazi regime and Hitler’s rise to power which had occurred after Berlin was selected as the venue for the games. Hitler used the games as a propaganda showcase of his regime and to advance the Nazi cause to the world. In the picture below Lovelock is running in fourth place during the 1500m Berlin Olympics.
Runners during the first lap of the 1500 metres final at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. Making New Zealand :Negatives and prints from the Making New Zealand Centennial collection. Ref: MNZ-0983-1/4-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22838560
The New Zealand Olympic team in Berlin was managed by Arthur Porritt and this starts a circle of interesting intersections. Starting first with Porritt’s connection to the 1924 Paris Olympics where he represented New Zealand in the 100m race where he came third and won the bronze medal. This was the race famously depicted in the movie “Chariots of Fire”. Apparently due to Porritt’s modesty his name did not feature in the movie and a fictional ‘Tom Watson’ was depicted as the bronze medallist. The winner of that famous race and so the main character depicted in the movie was Harold Abrahams. This brings us back to Lovelock and the Berlin Olympics. On the following Youtube clip you can watch Lovelock winning the Olympic gold medal in the 1500m race. The amazing commentary is by Harold Abrahams who was covering the Olympics for BBC radio. It’s a cross between an informed expert commentary and a fan watching a race on television at home with lots of “Come on Jack, he’s won, Hooray he’s won!!!. It is an amazing clip to watch and I’m sure you will enjoy the exuberant commentary.
Jack Lovelock : athlete and doctor / Graeme Woodfield. “Jack Lovelock remains one of New Zealand’s greatest sportsmen, the diminutive figure in black who, “running in a rapture”, won the Olympic 1500m gold medal in world record time in front of Hitler in 1936.Despite his fame, Lovelock has been an enigmatic, elusive figure. This prompted fellow Timaru Boys’ High School old boy Dr Graeme Woodfield to embark on a comprehensive study of Lovelock. Woodfield has examined the many facets of Lovelock – athlete, doctor, journalist, soldier, family man – and, drawing on the contributions of several specialists, completed what is virtually a forensic investigation of this famous New Zealander. He now offers the most comprehensive and readable account of this New Zealand icon’s life.” (Syndetics summary)
As if running on air : the journals of Jack Lovelock / edited by David Colquhoun.
“In the 1930s the New Zealander Jack Lovelock was one of the world’s best-known athletes. In 1933 he broke the world record for the mile. At the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games he won a gold medal and broke the world record for the 1500 metres. When he retired, a leading sports writer lamented the end of a golden age of mile racing. Throughout his running career Lovelock kept journals and diaries. While much has been written about Lovelock, until now his journals and diaries have never been published. Some are brief, little more than notes; others are eloquent and reflective. Collectively they constitute a unique record of a sporting life in the 1930s and offer insights into just what it took to make a world champion.” (Syndetics summary)
No ordinary man : the remarkable life of Arthur Porritt / Joseph Romanos and Graeme Woodfield.
“Arthur Porritt was a multi-faceted New Zealander who achieved great things in several spheres. Among his achievements: A Rhodes Scholar in 1923. An Olympic sprint medallist, in 1924, in the 100m final made famous by the film Chariots of Fire. A widely-respected and much-honoured surgeon, who became president of the Royal College of Surgeons and the British Medical Association. A member of the International Olympic Committee for more than half a century, and chairman of the Commonwealth Games Federation for 18 years. A decorated war hero, who was present during the D-Day landings. Surgeon to the Royal Family from 1936-67. The first New Zealand-born Governor General. In addition to their own research, the authors – one a medical doctor, the other a sports writer – have been given Porritt’s extensive unpublished memoirs, and have made maximum use of these in compiling No Ordinary Man.” (Syndetics summary)
Hitler’s Olympics : the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games / Christopher Hilton.
“The Berlin Olympic Games, which remain the most controversial ever held, have their 70th anniversary in August 2006. Using newspapers, diaries and interviews to recreate the atmosphere during the XIth Olympiad, this book presents an account of the disputes, the personalities and the events which made these Games so memorable.” (Syndetics summary)
Faster stronger higher : golden Olympians of New Zealand / Wilf Haskell.
“Wilf Haskell has written a book which is unique. His research into the previously unrecorded background of New Zealand’s Olympic champions provides some new and interesting insights into our gold medal winners from our first involvement in the Olympic Games through to the 1960’s.” (Syndetics summary)
Our Olympic century / Joseph Romanos.
“A landmark book that contains the story of New Zealand’s first 100 years at the Olympic Games, presented in an attractive, easy-to-read format” (Syndetics summary)
This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information.
29 May 1953: Hillary and Tenzing conquer Everest
Arguably our most famous New Zealander and someone whose picture we probably all carry around in our wallet, all be it on the $5 note, as he was one of the few living non-heads of state to feature on the banknotes first issued in 1990. This week we celebrate Sir Edmund Hillary’s Everest climb to the top of the world.
Edmund Hillary came to worldwide attention when he and Tenzing Norgay became the first to reach the summit of Mount Everest, the world’s highest peak. Hillary and fellow New Zealander George Lowe were members of the British Everest Expedition which was led by John Hunt. The summit was reached 4 days before the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. They reached the 8848m summit on the 29th May 1953. There was much discussion and controversy over who was the first to step on the summit. The news broke on the morning of the coronation and Hillary was one of the first to receive a knighthood from the new Queen bringing about another controversy as Hillary was knighted while Norgay was awarded the George Medal.
Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tensing Norgay in Wellington. Further negatives of the Evening Post newspaper. Ref: EP/1971/3690/6A-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22751853
I used the Proquest database located on the MyGateway page of the library webpages to find some articles written about Sir Edmund Hillary. The great thing about the Proquest database is that it offers full text, searchable access to national and provincial newspaper from Australia and New Zealand including The Dominion Post, Sunday Star Times and The New Zealand Herald. You need a library card to log on so you can search from home or on the free internet service available at all our branch libraries. I found a number of obituaries written at the time of Sir Edmund’s death. I particulary liked this quote from an article titled “The man mountain” by Anthony Hubbard in the Sunday Star Times on the 6th Apr 2003.
Hillary laughed about the cascade of compliments coming his way during the 50th anniversary of his conquest of Everest. “What’s the term they use?” he asked. “No, not the hero, the ah… I always forget the name.” He called out to his wife upstairs. “June, what am I?” Lady Hillary came down and said, matter of fact: “An icon.”
“An icon!” he laughed. “I’m certainly not an icon at home.” “No man”, she replied, “is an icon to his wife.”
While talking about Sir Edmund Hillary with a colleague he mentioned a performance he had seen at Womad and sent me a link. It received a rousing reception at the festival and it is worth a look. The group Public Service Broadcasting say in their Youtube account description that “They take samples from old public information films, archive footage and propaganda material, attempting to ‘teach the lessons of the past through the music of the future’.” You can view the clip below or hop over to to our catalogue for their CD titled Inform educate entertain.
You can also view a N.Z. On Screen short film of Hillary returning to New Zealand after the history making climb to the summit of Everest at their website here. You will also be able to view other documentaries about Sir Edmund Hillary from the same link.
A trivia question: What vehicle associated with Sir Edmund’s Antarctic expeditions is pictured on the five dollar note? Go to see the answer here as it’s quite hard to see on the bottom left corner of the note.
Following his ascent of Everest Hillary devoted much of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he founded in 1960. Due to the trust and his determined efforts many schools and hospitals were built in this remote region of the Himalayas. Through the trust many New Zealanders have donated money and volunteered in the building projects and staffing of schools and hospitals in Nepal. On the 50th anniversary of the climb the Prime Minister of Nepal made Sir Edmund an honorary citizen of Nepal. A close connection between Nepal and New Zealand continues today and at the time of the tragic Anzac Day earthquake in Nepal Himalayan Trust members and other New Zealand travellers and volunteers were in Nepal. A number of appeals have since been launched in New Zealand to provide aide to the Nepalese people.
Various expeditions to climb Everest had been undertaken since 1921 and you can read digitised newspaper articles on the Papers Past database with a simple search of Everest. You can also read online the New Zealand Geographic here and search for articles on Hillary by logging on with your library card. I found the following article on Papers Past from the Evening Post 18 July 1934 which illustrates the drive that adventurers felt to conquer Everest which was sometimes called the ‘Third Pole’ in relation to the difficulty, excitement and interest in planning and making North and South Pole Expeditions.
Sir Edmund Hillary was on the front cover of many newspapers and magazines following the Everest climb. Articles can be found in the London Times which you can search using your library card to log in from the Newspaper database collection here. As the 1950s print media is not widely digitised you can instead view Wellington newspaper front pages of the time on microfilm, or you can ask to see the Life Magazine issue (Vol 15, No. 3. August 10, 1953 – International Edition) that had Hillary and Tenzing on the front cover. The famous magazine contained an article written by Sir Edmund Hillary, Tenzing’s own story and some stunning photographs. There is also a small glossary of the special ‘Language of Everest’ to explain climbing terms used in the article. You can also ask to see the 1953 New Zealand Alpine Journal that has an editorial dedicated to the ‘Ascent of Everest’ and contains an article by Hillary about the previous year’s British expedition to the Himalayas or the May 2003 copy of National Geographic for an article on the 50th anniversary of the ascent.
Hillary died of heart failure at the age of 88 on 11 January 2008. At Scott Base in Antarctica and at all New Zealand government and public buildings flags were lowered to half mast in recognition of his death and as a tribute to what he meant to the people of New Zealand. A state funeral was held in New Zealand and a thanksgiving service was also held in London. Many memorials and lasting tributes have since been set up to commemorate him. The library holds a number of books about Hillary and Everest, the first is a fascinating illustrated biography with stunning photos many taken by Sir Edmund who was an avid photographer.
Sir Edmund Hillary : an extraordinary life / Alexa Johnston.
“Around the world Sir Edmund Hillary is a legendary figure – climber, bold adventurer, practical philanthropist and one of the most widely respected persons of our time. He has survived extremes of human experience – from historic triumphs to crushing personal loss – but he sees himself as an ordinary man, persistent rather than heroic. This beautiful book is profusely illustrated with over 500 images, using fascinating material, such as letters, cards, diary pages, and ephemera, from his personal archive. It is a magnificent tribute to one of the greatest climbers and explorers of all time.” (Syndetics summary)
Here is a quote from Edmund Hillary’s diary from Sir Edmund Hillary : an extraordinary life.
Tenzing is an absolutely first class companion for a climber such as myself who likes a lion’s share of the leading. His great strength & endurance enable him to maintain almost any pace without complaint. He is always watchful and efficient in his technique & over dangerous ground the rope is kept tight with a comforting assurance of readiness to meet any emergency.
View from the summit / Edmund Hillary.
“View from the Summit is a thoughtful and honest reappraisal of a life spent pushing human ability to its limits and relishing the challenges thrown down by the elements. It is also the story of a man whom the world has taken to its heart.” (Inside Cover)
Everest 1953 : the epic story of the first ascent / Mick Conefrey.
“On the morning of 2 June 1953, the day of Queen Elizabeth’s coronation, the first news broke that Everest had finally been conquered. Drawing on first-hand interviews and unprecedented access to archives, this is a ground-breaking new account of that extraordinary first ascent. Revealing that what has gone down in history as a supremely well-planned expedition was actually beset by crisis and controversy, Everest 1953 recounts a bygone age of self-sacrifice and heroism, using letters and personal diaries to reveal the immense stress and heartache the climbers often hid from their fellow team members. Charting how the ascent affected the original team in subsequent years and detailing its immense cultural impact today, Everest 1953 is the perfect book to commemorate this remarkable feat of the human will.” (Syndetics summary)
Everest – the first ascent : the untold story of Griffith Pugh, the man who made it possible / Harriet Tuckey.
“Marking the 60th anniversary of the first ascent of Everest in May 1953, Everest — The First Ascent tells the story of the doctor and physiologist Griffith Pugh, without whom the successful conquest of Everest by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay would not have been possible. Recruited as an advisor in 1952, Pugh battled for fifteen months — in the face of opposition, suspicion and ridicule — to revolutionise almost every aspect of British high-altitude mountaineering, transforming the approach to oxygen, clothing, boots, tents, air beds, fitness, hygiene, health-care, diet and acclimatisation. The results were a stunning success and opened the door to the golden age of Himalayan climbing. Pugh’s techniques are still in use today, yet he has never enjoyed popular credit for his work.” (Syndetics summary)
After Everest : inside the private world of Edmund Hillary / Paul Little with Carolyne Meng-Yee.
“Edmund Hillary is a towering figure among adventurers. His conquest of Everest and his dedication to the welfare of the Nepalese people is well known. While much has been written about what Sir Edmund Hillary did, ‘Ed’, the man behind the legend, is less well known in large part because he controlled how his story was told. The years leading up to Everest and the other great adventures are remarkable enough, but it is the drama of Ed’s later years that throws light onto the world of the private man: the death of his wife and daughter in an air crash, his remarriage to the widow of an old friend, and, finally, the falling out, after his own death, of family members and those in his inner circle. Ed’s image was that of a simple, straightforward man, but in reality he was a complex bundle of paradoxes. This is the story of the man behind the legend.”–Back cover.
The conquest of Everest : original photographs from the legendary first ascent / George Lowe and Huw Lewis-Jones.
“Published to mark the sixtieth anniversary of the conquest of Mount Everest, this visually spectacular book features a trove of original photographs and other rare materials from the George Lowe collection, many unpublished, complemented by classic images from the final ascent. Stunning landscapes, candid portraits, and action shots describe the day-by-day moments of the historic expedition as never before.The extraordinary journey is retold from Lowe’s point of view, capturing the drama of the expedition and the personal stories of those involved. The book also includes contributions from an impressive team of mountaineers and explorers, including Reinhold Messner, Sir Chris Bonington, the late Sir Edmund Hillary, Peter Hillary, Doug Scott, Stephen Venables, Norbu Tenzing Norgay, Tom Hornbein, Kenton Cool, and Jan Morris.” (Syndetics summary)
Everest / [editors, Ian Penberthy and George Lewis].
“Approximately 400 unique photographs, along with descriptive captions, transport the reader from base camp to the snow-clad slopes and ridges of Mount Everest, and to the peak itself. The Earth’s highest mountain… has long been a lure for mountaineers and explorers. The dangers of altitude sickness, adverse weather conditions, and ferocious winds make the peak tantalizingly difficult to attain. The ninth British expedition, led by John Hunt, made two attempts in 1953. The first climbing pair came to within 300ft of the summit on May 26th, but were forced to turn back after experiencing oxygen problems. Two days later New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali Sherpa, made a second assault, reaching the summit at 11:30 am on May 29th via the South Col Route. The Royal Geographical Society’s extensive archives contain an astonishingly detailed and intimate record of the unsuccessful expeditions in the 1920s and 1930s, and the landmark 1953 expedition, with many fascinating and beautiful images captured by the photographers who accompanied the climbing teams.” (Syndetics summary)
The Kingitanga movement was established in 1858 due to concerns among some central North Island Māori tribes of alienation of Māori land and to give Māori leadership an equal status to that of the English monarchy. Korokī Te Rata Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero was the fifth king. This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information.
Korokī (pictured above in the centre) was the eldest son of Te Rata, the fourth Māori king. Te Rata died in 1933 and although Koroki felt unprepared to take his father’s place and felt the people were too poor to afford to support a king, he was however crowned on 8 October 1933. His feeling of being unprepared meant he made sure his successors were well educated and better prepared for the role than he had been.
Carved door, and door surround, including the coat of arms for the Maori kings (Te Paki o Matariki) at the Turongo House, Turanga-waewae, Ngaruawahia. Godber, Albert Percy, 1875-1949 :Collection of albums, prints and negatives. Ref: APG-1501-1/4-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22801383
This photo shows a welcoming Haka performed before Korokī makes an official speech. You can listen to Korokī making a speech here.
Haka and action song being performed at Mahina-a-rangi meeting house, Turangawaewae marae, Ngaruawhahia. Original photographic prints and postcards from file print collection, Box 2. Ref: PAColl-5584-28. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22454670
You can read an article about the tangihana (funeral) of Korokī from the National Library website of the digitised journal Te Ao Houhere. The website describes the journal below;
Te Ao Hou was published from 1952 to 1976 by the Māori Affairs Department in New Zealand Aotearoa. According to its first editorial, Te Ao Hou aimed “to provide interesting and informative reading for Maori homes … like a marae on paper, where all questions of interest to the Maori can be discussed.
The journal can be accessed from the Māori Resources page via the Rauemi link on the Wellington Libraries website.
Here are some of the books held in the library collection about people of note in the Kingitanga.
Koroki, my king.
“A collection of memories of King Koroki, the fifth Maori king. These memoirs have been offered by the people of Waikato” — ” The story is written at the request of Te Arikihui Te Atairangikaahu. It is to commemorate the reign of her father, King Korokī, and to acknowledge the effort and sacrifice of his people” (Inside Cover)
King Pōtatau : an account of the life of Pōtatau Te Wherowhero the first Māori king / Pei Te Hurinui.
“This book details the background to the Kingitanga and also tells the story of the first king, Potatau Te Wherowhero. It details all the momentous events of Te Wherowhero’s life from around 1775 to his death in 1860, including his status as Lord of the Waikato and the famous battles and conflicts with other tribes, his raising up as the First Maori King, and Mana Motuhake, the Maori Kingship, set apart as the symbol of the spiritual and cultural life of the Maori. Pei Te Hurinui’s biography of King Potatau tells this story in a Maori voice employing waiata, poetry and whakapapa as well as prose text in English and English translations so that the book is accessible to both Maori language speakers and those with no knowledge of Maori.” (Syndetics summary)
The Maori king / John Eldon Gorst ; edited with an introduction by K.O. Arvidson.
“The Māori King has long been recognised as a masterpiece of nineteenth-century New Zealand Literature. E.H. McCormick thought it pre-eminent among works on the wars of the 1860s, while Keith Sinclair considered it ‘the very best of nineteenth century account of life among the Māori’ M.P.K. Sorrenson has described it as ‘one of the classics of New Zealand Literature’.” (Inside Cover)
For added interest you can head to the Times Digital Archive which can be accessed from our newspapers page from the collection of databases at My Gateway on the library website to read a letter Gorst sent to the times that was published on the 24th December 1863. And you can read a biography of John Gorst here.
Tamihana the kingmaker / by L.S. Rickard.
From the preface it reads “It was while I was reading the new edition of Sir John Gorst’s ‘The Māori King’ that I realised that Wiremu Tamihana was one of the most remarkable men in our history and also one of its least known. In spite of the important part he took in the affairs of the 1850s and 1860s, he occupies few lines in most history books…..This work is an attempt to redress the balance.”
Te Puea : a life / Michael King.
Te Puea Herangi, whom Professor John Pocock identified as ‘possibly the most influencial women in our political history’, wanted an honest biography of her turbulent life.” (Abridged back cover)
For generations of New Zealanders ‘The School Journals’ have been part of our literacy journey. I have vivid memories of my class each being handed a journal and taking turns reading a paragraph out loud. I would run my finger along the words as others read so I would be ready for my turn. There was always such excitement when the teacher announced “turn to the play on page 12” and then we would all be anxiously waiting and hoping to get a part to read.
The stories talked about New Zealand places and people, the poems evoked New Zealand scenery and experiences and sometimes the stories and poems had art work by children. This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information. This week’s topic;
9 May 1907 The First School Journal published
In May 1907 New Zealand pupils were for the first time able to read a schoolbook published in their own country. The quarterly School Journal was initiated by Inspector-General of Schools George Hogben as a free publication containing information on history, geography and civics. This was a cheaper option than publishing several separate textbooks. Until 1939, when a School Publications Branch was formed, the School Journal was the Department of Education’s sole publication for children.
Wellington Central Library holds a collection of New Zealand School Journals in our Magazine Stack dating back to the 1907 bound copy.
The School Journal was published by Learning Media for the Ministry of Education from 1993 until 2013, when it moved to a private publisher, Lift Education. Believed to be the longest-running serial publication for children in the world, the Journal continues to provide seven- to 13-year-olds with reading material that is relevant to their lives. Around 750,000 copies of the School Journal are published annually in four parts.
They can also now be read online here at the Ministry of Education’s TKI website.
A lion in the meadow / Margaret Mahy ; illustrated by Jenny Williams.
“A new Early Reader edition of this classic story from the hugely popular and award-winning Margaret Mahy When the little boy tells his mother he has seen a big, roaring, yellow, whiskery lion in the meadow, she decides to make up a story for him too and gives him a matchbox with a tiny dragon inside.” (Syndetics summary)
To celebrate the School Journal 100 year anniversary in 2007 Learning Media published the beautiful ‘A Nest of Singing Birds’, a browse of this book is sure to evoke memories of classroom and childhood.
Here are some examples of what these artists and writers have gone on to produce or had written about them.
Māori boy : a memoir of childhood / Witi Ihimaera.
“This is the first volume of Witi Ihimaera’s enthralling memoir, packed with stories from the formative years of this much-loved writer. Witi Ihimaera is a consummate storyteller – one critic calling him one of our ‘finest and most memorable’. Some of his best stories, however, are about his own life. This honest, stirring work tells of the family and community into which Ihimaera was born, of his early life in rural New Zealand, of family secrets, of facing anguish and challenges, and of laughter and love. As Ihimaera recounts the myths that formed his early imagination, he also reveals the experiences from real life that wriggled into his fiction. Alive with an inventive, stimulating narrative and vividly portrayed relatives, this memoir is engrossing, entertaining and moving, but, more than this, it is also a vital record of what it means to grow up Maori.” (Syndetics summary)
“A literary milestone: Patricia Grace’sfirst novel in ten years. Uprooted from his privileged European life and sent to New Zealand to sort himself out, twenty-one-year-old Daniel pieces together the history of his Maori family. As his relatives revisit their past, Daniel learns of a remarkable love story between his Maori grandmother Oriwia and his Japanese grandfather Chappy. The more Daniel hears about his deceased grandfather, the more intriguing – and elusive – Chappy becomes. In this touching portrayal of family life, acclaimed writer Patricia Grace explores racial intolerance, cross-cultural conflicts and the universal desire to belong. Spanning several decades and several continents and set against the backdrop of a changing New Zealand, Chappy is a compelling story of enduring love.” (Syndetics summary)
Rita Angus : life & vision / edited by William McAloon & Jill Trevelyan.
“This exquisite full-colour catalogue explores the life and work of Rita Angus (1908#150;70), one of New Zealand’s best-loved artists and her legacy of art in New Zealand. It features magnificent reproductions of every artwork in the exhibition, from iconic landscapes and portraits like Cass and Rutu to work never before seen in public. Includes essays from well-known writers, critics, and art historians.” (Syndetics summary)
Baxter basics / James K. Baxter.
“In 1954 James K Baxter became a teacher and began writing poems for children. Here for the first time in one volume are the Baxter Basics – a New Zealand classic. BAXTER BASICS were originally published in 1979 as six poems in separate booklets: Rain, I’m a Tree, The Tree House, The Seagull, The Ships and The Firemen. They remain some of the finest examples of children’s poetry produced in this country. With their delightful original illustrations by the celebrated Lynley Dodd, Judith Trevelyan, Dawn Johnston and Ernest Papps this volume is a must have for kiwi kids and adults alike.” (Syndetics summary)
James K. Baxter : poems / by James K. Baxter ; selected and introduced by Sam Hunt.
“Including 50 poems by revered New Zealand poet and social activist James K. Baxter, this unique and accessibly sized collection offers an insider’s view of the man and his work from his longtime friend and fellow poet Sam Hunt. With a range of familiar and lesser-known poems dating from 1945 to 1972, and a substantial essay by Hunt, this compilation offers a fresh and very personal look at the work of an extraordinarily influential poet.” (Syndetics summary)
Nga tau ki muri = Our future / Ans Westra.
“This timely and visionary new book includes 137 Westra photographs of the New Zealand landscape, with text contributions from Hone Tuwhare, Russel Norman, Brian Turner, David Eggleton and David Lange, who wrote a short piece for Ans as part of an unreaslied book project in 1987. Well known for her iconic black and white documentation of Maori culture, Ans Westra is also known for her colour works, which show concern for New Zealand’s destiny, “an island exploited by various waves of settlement”. Shot with Ans’ trusty Rolleiflex camera, the sometimes damning images in Our Future have been made over the last 20 years. “The purpose of the book is to give a directive to the country, an awareness of things changed and lost within its short history. If we don’t plan for the long term and keep taking stop-gap measures, we leave very little behind. Instead of becoming like the rest of the world, this beautiful place should become a shining example of hope for survival in a newly balanced environment. Ans Westra.” (Syndetics summary)
Roses are red, violets are blue, here’s some New Zealand poetry and some other topics too! A mixture of poetry, caravans, horses, New Zealand Women, exploration, jewellery and murder cover some of the variety of topics of the recent arrivals in the New Zealand Collection this month.
Being here : selected poems / Vincent O’Sullivan.
“BEING HERE is the first book to survey the entire span of Vincent O’Sullivan’s poetry, from Bearings (1973) to new poems first published in this volume. On display is the full range of the wit, intellectual agility and arresting beauty of one of New Zealand literature’s finest poets. Hardback, Cover painting by Karl Maughan Vincent O’Sullivan is one of New Zealand’s leading writers, author of the biography of John Mulgan, Long Journey to the Border, the novels Let the River Stand and Believers to the Bright Coast, and many plays and collections of short stories and poems. He is joint editor of the five-volume Letters of Katherine Mansfield and has edited a number of major anthologies. He lives in Dunedin.” (Abridged Syndetics summary)
Jerusalem sonnets, love, Wellington Zoo / David Beach.
“In his fourth collection David Beach tackles a subject inescapable for any New Zealander writing sonnets; a subject inescapable for any writer of sonnets at all; and a subject which is just inescapable.” (Syndetics summary)
Whistling in the dark / John O’Connor.
“Whistling in the Dark comprises two approximately equal sections: (1) poems and (2) prose poems; both sections were written between 1994 and 2012. The poems cover a range of topics and themes and include ‘Mother and Child’, the winning poem of the Poetry Society’s International Poetry Competition, 2006. All poems have been previously published in magazines, journals and anthologies. The prose poems are, more accurately, a combination of prose poems and hybrid forms of the prose poem. As such they represent a departure from the standard prose poem as found in NZ and international journals and magazines. Again, there is a range of topics and themes and most of the pieces have been previously published in magazines, journals and anthologies. Whistling in the Dark is the 11th book of poems by John O’Connor.” (Syndetics summary)
Dear Neil Roberts / Airini Beautrais.
“It is November 18, 1982. Neil Ian Roberts is 22 years old. He walks up to the Police Computer Centre in Whanganui, at 12.35am. Who was Neil Roberts? This is the search for the story of a quiet young man, an anarchist, a figure who moves differently, or vanishes altogether, in different versions of history. How are such people remembered; how are they forgotten? As much a work of documentary as poetry, this extraordinary book considers the uncomfortable event of Neil Roberts’s death, its significance in the context of 1980s New Zealand, and how this action has reverberated through others’ lives, including the poet’s own.” (Syndetics summary)
A great indoors for the great outdoors : the story of Liteweight caravans / Don Jessen.
“In 1946, a practical-minded New Zealander became interested in caravans as a way of holidaying and decided to build one for his family in his garage. From this humble beginning a story of Kiwi ingenuity emerged, with Liteweight Caravans growing to become an iconic New Zealand brand, which for over four decades led the country, and sometimes the world, in technical design and innovation. Liteweight produced more caravans than any other caravan manufacturer in New Zealand and, today, more than 25 years after the factory closed, the majority of its caravans are still in use. This is a story as much about people as it is of caravans, and the person at the heart of the story is Tek Jessen, Liteweight¿s founder.” (Syndetics summary)
Bridled passion : a tribute to our Kiwi equestrians / Margot Butcher.
“New Zealand equestrians riding high have become a regular source of pride for Kiwis. Bridled Passion is a beautiful compendium dedicated to celebrating the 30-year success story of New Zealand’s best equestrian sportspeople and their fine-tuned steeds. From 1960 Olympics pioneer Andrew White through to the magic medal-winning moments of Sir Mark Todd, Andrew Nicholson, Sally Clark, Blyth Tait, Tinks Pottinger, Vaughn Jefferis and their contemporaries, this book celebrates New Zealand’s high-performance equestrian story; the riders and horses through whose exploits we have discovered the thrill of a fast, clean cross-country and the agony of a clipped rail!” (Syndetics summary)
Niue 1774-1974 : 200 years of contact and change / Margaret Pointer.
“Tiny Niue lies alone in the south Pacific, a single island with formidable cliffs rising from the deep ocean. Far from the main shipping routes and with a daunting reputation, “Savage Island” did not naturally invite visitors. Yet Niue has a surprisingly rich history of contact, from the brief landings by James Cook in 1774 through to the 19th-century visits by whalers, traders, and missionaries, and into the 20th century when New Zealand extended its territory to include the Cook Islands and Niue. Using a wide range of archival material from Niue, New Zealand, Australia, and Britain, Margaret Pointer places Niue center stage in an entertaining and thoroughly readable account of this island nation through to 1974, when Niue became self-governing.” (Syndetics summary)
Kobi Bosshard : goldsmith / Damian Skinner.
“A survey of the work and ideas of a leading New Zealand jeweller who has been critical to the development of studio craft in Aotearoa. Born in Switzerland, Kobi Bosshard came to New Zealand in 1961. His expertise as a traditionally trained goldsmith is centre stage in this beautifully illustrated book, which is published as part of Objectspace’s Masters of Craft series. Written by art historian Damian Skinner, it provides a perceptive and informative discussion of Bosshard’s life and work, describing over five decades of contemporary jewellery that explores the possibilities of the craftsperson’s role in creating sophisticated and unique objects for people to wear and own.” (Inside front cover)
Dumont d’Urville : explorer & polymath / Edward Duyker.
“Explorer Jules-Sébastien-César Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842) is sometimes called France’s Captain Cook. Born less than a year after the beginning of the French Revolution, he lived through turbulent times. He was an erudite polymath: a maritime explorer fascinated by botany, entomology, ethnography and the diverse languages of the world.” (Dust jacket)
All those yesterdays / Elspeth Biss. “This is a story many New Zealand women – particularly those who grew up in the country – will identify with. Elspeth Biss was brought up on Hawke’s Bay farms in the 1940’s; attended boarding school in the 1950’s; trained as a nurse, married and had her children in the 1960’s. As she writes: The 1960’s may well have been ‘The Dawning of the Age of Aquarius’, as the popular song had it, with the Beatles, Mary Quant and the mini-skirt, but for me and most of my friends it was a decade of child raising, washing nappies, Plunket and kindergartens.” (Abridged Back Cover)
Murder that wasn’t : the case of George Gwaze / Felicity Goodyear-Smith.
“This book tells the story of the case of Zimbabwean-born New Zealand resident George Gwaze, twice charged and twice acquitted of the rape and murder of his 10-year-old adopted niece, Charlene Makaza. When Charlene was found unconscious one morning, gasping for breath, with a high fever and lying in a pool of diarrhea, her family rushed her to the Christchurch 24-hour clinic. She was treated for overwhelming sepsis and transferred to the hospital, but sadly her life could not be saved. What unfolds next is a surreal set of events so improbable that they seem fictitious. Murder That Wasn’t meticulously explores the facts surrounding this case based on scientific, medical, and court records and individual interviews to tell this family’s extraordinary story.” (Syndetics summary)
The historic alliance made in 1936 between Rātana and the Labour Party that was to greatly influence the Māori seats is highlighted this week. This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information. This week part two of a two part blog about the establishment of the first four Māori seats.
22nd April 1936 Rātana and Labour Seal Alliance
Raine, William Hall, 1892-1955. Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana – Photograph taken by William Hall Raine. Dominion post (Newspaper) :Photographic negatives and prints of the Evening Post and Dominion newspapers. Ref: EP-NZ Obits-Ra to Rd-01. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/23028785
The alliance between the Rātana Church and the Labour Party was cemented at an historic meeting between Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana and Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage on 22 April 1936. The links will take you to the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography pages that can also be accessed from the library My Gateway page for more details about these two men.
Michael Joseph Savage. Original photographic prints and postcards from file print collection, Box 1. Ref: PAColl-5471-055. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/23043767
In 1928 T.W. Rātana announced his intention to enter politics, referring to the four Māori seats as the ‘four quarters’ of his body. He aimed to win these seats through the voting power of his followers, by 1934 said to number 40,000.
In 1932 Eruera Tirikātene became the first Rātana MP when he won a by-election for Southern Maori. He was instructed to support the Labour opposition. Rātana favoured the Labour Party because it had consulted his supporters when devising its Māori policy. When Labour won a landslide election victory in 1935 the Rātana movement took a second seat, Western Maori.
At the 1936 meeting Rātana presented Savage with four symbolic gifts. Three huia feathers, representing Māori, protruded from a potato, which symbolised the land taken from Māori, leaving them unable to grow the staple crop. A pounamu (jade) hei tiki represented Māori mana (prestige), which had also been lost. A broken gold watch handed down to Rātana by his grandfather represented the broken promises of the Crown. A pin with a star and crescent moon was the symbol of the Rātana Church, Tohu o te Māramatanga. It is said that these items had such a profound impact on Savage that when he died in 1940 they were buried with him.
In 1943 the Rātana–Labour alliance succeeded in capturing all ‘four quarters’ when Tiaki Omana defeated Sir Āpirana Ngata for the Eastern Maori seat. Labour was to hold all the Māori seats until 1993.
Ratana temple. Godber, Albert Percy, 1875-1949 :Collection of albums, prints and negatives. Ref: 1/2-018648-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/23113205
Here is an image of a Rātana membership card with the inscription, “He kororia, he honore, hareruia kia “Ihoa”, Matua, Tama, Wairua Tapu, me nga Anahera Pono – Te Area – Te Omeka – Piri Wiri Tua – Hamuera, me Te Kahui Ariki Wairua i raro ia Ratou, mo Te Mangai hei tautoko ake nei: – Ae”
[Ratana Pa] :He kororia, he honore, hareruia kia “Ihoa”, Matua, Tama, Wairua Tapu, me nga Anahera Pono … Puke-Marama, Ringa-Kaha, Hanuere 25, 1937. He paahi tenei e whakaae ana ahau [Whakapae Tamou] kia [hoata?] te Kororia te Honore … Na T. W Ratana-Mangai-Piri Tua . Ref: Eph-A-MAORI-Ratana-1937-01. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/32963413
Ratana : the prophet / Keith Newman. Throughout history, certain individuals with a rare passion for justice and a gift of insight have been able to rally and motivate people through periods of great social change, sometimes defying all odds and being greatly misunderstood in the process.TahupÅtiki Wiremu RÄtana was such a man, called to prominence at a pivotal time, with a message for the MÄori people and for the wider world. After a profound vision he became a healer of people’s physical ailments and a lifter of ancient curses; and he was also a leader in healing the ‘land sickness’ of the MÄori, after decades of land confiscation by the Government and the Crown.As founder of the RÄtana Church and the RÄtana movement, he led his followers in the quest to unite all MÄori under one God, and to restore the Treaty of Waitangi as the founding document of the nation, giving MÄori equal rights to British citizens.Ratana – The Prophet, based on some 20 years of research, distils for a general audience the extraordinary depth of T. W. RÄtana’s political, spiritual and social legacy.
New Zealand’s first parliamentary elections were held in 1853, although at that time not everyone had the right to vote. This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information. This week the first of a two part blog as we remember the first Māori MPs elected to Parliament. Next week will highlight the historic alliance made in 1936 between Rātana and the Labour Party that was to greatly influence the Māori seats, but first 1868, and the establishment of the first four Māori seats.
April 1868 The First Māori MPs Elected to Parliament
Four Māori seats in the House of Representatives were established in 1867, initially for a period of five years. The innovation was in some part a recognition of Māori support for the Crown during the New Zealand Wars but also politically motivated as the Māori seats also served as a counterweight to new seats that had been created on the South Island goldfields. You can read the Māori Representation Act here at the Early New Zealand Statutes site by The University of Auckland Library.
Nomination day in all four Māori seats was on the 15 April. Frederick Nene Russell (Northern Maori) and Mete Kīngi Paetahi (Western Maori) were elected unopposed. In Eastern Maori there were two candidates and Tareha Te Moananui was elected after a show of hands. In Southern Maori there were three candidates and a poll was demanded. Held in June, this resulted in the election of John Patterson. From the Electoral Commission New Zealand website you can read more of the history of the Māori Seats and MPs here.
Mundy, Daniel Louis, 1826?-1881. Mundy, Daniel Louis (Christchurch) fl 1858-1875 :Portrait of Metekingi Paetahi. Ref: PA2-1176. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22876136
In the 1870s Hōri Kerei Taiaroa, the member for Southern Maori, argued unsuccessfully for an increase in the number of Maori electoral districts to five or even seven. He did succeed in getting legislation passed in 1876 that made the seats permanent unless they were abolished by legislation.
Hori Kerei Taiaroa. General Assembly Library :Parliamentary portraits. Ref: 35mm-00131-e-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22864517
In 1986, the Royal Commission suggested that under MMP Māori would no longer need the Māori seats but it was argued against and as a result of the reforms that were introduced following the commission, the Māori seats survived. The number of seats would now increase or decrease according to the results (population numbers) of the regular Māori electoral option”. As a result in 1996 before the first MMP election, the number of Māori seats increased to five, the first increase in 129 years. In 2002, it went up to seven. There is a map on the Te Ara website that shows the boundaries of the Māori seats over the years here.
Front view of a meeting house at Te Whaiti showing Maori carving around the porch. A sign in the window reads ‘Polling Booth Whare Pooti’. Circa 1930’s
Meeting house at Te Whaiti. Original photographic prints and postcards from file print collection, Box 1. Ref: PAColl-5471-013. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22524369
To read a variety of opinions about Māori parliamentary seats I conducted a search using an index found on the library Gateway page here. You can find Index New Zealand in the drop-down menu and once you log on using your library card a search for ‘Māori Seats’ will give you a list of articles from Newspapers and magazines. You can filter the search if you just want journal articles and with this I found some interesting articles from Mana Magazine, New Zealand Geographic, The Listener, The Journal of New Zealand Studies and others. You can search for the journals held by the library on our catalogue and what years we hold. If you are looking for older copies that are no longer on the open shelves they can be retrieved for you from the magazine stack accessed from the 2nd floor. For example we have copies of Mana Magazine dating back to the first issue in 1993.
You can also research many of these early Māori politicians on the libraries Tāngata Māori Database. This comprises a collection of articles on Māori people covering the years 1930 to the present day, many of them taken from the Dominion and Evening Post newspapers. The core of the material once formed the biographies file of the New Zealand vertical file collection. Ask at the second floor enquiry desk for help with this database or to locate the articles you find.
The New Zealand Collection holds a number of biographies of some of the early Māori MPs such as;
Wiremu Pere : the life and times of a Maori leader, 1873-1915 / Joseph Anaru Te Kani Pere and others.
“Wiremu Pere (Wi Pere) lived from 1837 to 1915, leading his tribes of Rongowhakaata and Te Aitanga a Mahaki through some of the most turbulent chapters of New Zealand history. He stood resolute against colonialism and entered parliament to stand up for his East Coast people, yet was astute in his business dealings and was compromised in the views of many Pakeha and Maori. This handsome book, illustrated with numerous photographs, whakapapa and maps, sets out the many sides Wi Pere’s life and times with a particular focus on his family life, parliamentary career and contributions to the East Coast.” (Syndetics summary)
Ngapua : the political life of Hone Heke Ngapua, MHR / Paul Moon. “Hone Heke Ngapua (1869-1909) was one of the foremost Maori leaders of the past two centuries. He received enormous recognition as an MP, working alongside Carroll, Ngata, and Seddon, and emerged as the country’s first pan-tribal Maori leader. Paul Moon’s long-awaited first biography of Ngapua is as absorbing as the man himself, and fills a vital gap in the country’s history – especially its Maori history – in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.” (Adapted from Syndetics summary)
You will also find useful material about Māori in relation to government, treaty and leadership.
Māori and Parliament : diverse strategies and compromises / edited by Maria Bargh. “Maori and Parliament provides a comprehensive and enlightening context for understanding both the historical and contemporary relationship between Maori and Parliament and highlights many of the issues which would arise in any discussion of New Zealand constitutional reform. Maori and Parliament is a collection of nineteen presentations and papers from twenty-one academics, political commentators and current and former parliamentarians and is the result of the Maori and Parliament conference held at Parliament in May 2009.” (Syndetics summary)
The Treaty of Waitangi companion : Māori and Pākehā̄̄ from Tasman to today / edited by Vincent O’Malley, Bruce Stirling and Wally Penetito.
“Since the Treaty of Waitangi was signed by Maori chiefs and Governor Hobson in 1840 it has become the defining document in New Zealand history. From the New Zealand Wars to the 1975 Land March, from the Kingitanga to the Waitangi Tribunal, from Captain Cook to Hone Harawira, The Treaty of Waitangi Companion tells the story of the Treaty and Maori and Pakeha relations through the many voices of those who made this country’s history.Sourced from government publications and newspapers, letters and diaries, poems, paintings and cartoons, the Companion brings to life the long history of debates about the Treaty and life in Aotearoa.” (Adapted from Syndetics summary)
The spirit of Māori leadership / Selwyn Katene.
“Explores what leadership is, discusses different models and styles of Māori leadership, describes the qualities and approaches of Māori leaders and, using this knowledge, looks at the attributes and styles needed in future leaders. The book provides insights into and analysis of traditional and contemporary models of Māori leadership. From this, it identifies three connected themes: understanding what makes a good leader, the importance of people and relationships, and the need to formulate a strategic plan and examines four leadership models: transactional, charismatic, transformational and organic.” (Publisher information)
This week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information. This week we remember the sinking of the Wahine in Wellington Harbour.
10th April 1968 The Sinking of the Wahine
The Wahine was one of the two ships that maintained a regular service between Wellington and Lyttelton. Each ferry was drive-on and provided sleeping accommodation for the passengers.
Hutt Road Thorndon Quay offramp, railway lines and ferry terminals with the Wahine and one other ferry at the wharf. Winder, Duncan, 1919-1970 :Architectural photographs. Ref: DW-5389-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22775328
On the evening of the 9th April the Wahine set out from Lyttleton on the regular overnight service. There were 123 officers and 610 passengers onboard and a stowaway who was travelling to Wellington to join the crew of the rail ferry Aramoana in Wellington which was not an uncommon unofficial way to travel. The ferry was en route from Lyttelton to Wellington when it fell victim to one of the most ferocious storms in New Zealand’s recorded history. With the loss of 52 lives (a 53rd victim died in 1990 from injuries sustained in the wreck), this was our worst maritime disaster since the loss of the Penguin in 1909.
Wahine sinking in Wellington Harbour. Further negatives of the Evening Post newspaper. Ref: EP/1968/1647/14-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22327912
The wreck of the Wahine lay near the harbour entrance for 5 years with the last pieces of the ship being removed in 1973. The salvage work sadly also claimed the life of one of the divers involved in the dangerous underwater cutting work.
Hikitia floating crane lifting a portion of the ferry Wahine, Wellington. Negatives of the Evening Post newspaper. Ref: 35mm-00036-b-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22467631
The wrecking of the Wahine is often studied and we have some very useful resources here in the New Zealand Collection and library databases. Although online New Zealand newspaper databases do not cover the year of the Wahine sinking, the New Zealand Collection has a Local History Collection that is a collection of newspaper and magazine clippings. The clippings are organised in a searchable database called the Wellington Local History Vertical Files and by asking at the 2nd floor desk using the file names you find you will be rewarded with envelopes full of newspaper clippings. We also have the Evening Post Clippings Collection, 1927 – 1977 and a search of this database will provide a large collection of clippings both about the disaster and the inquiry that followed.
There is an overseas newspaper database that does cover this timeframe and by searching the Times Digital Archive from the mygateway.info library databases I was able to read the report on the Wahine disaster on the front page of The Times newspaper and see pictures on page 12 from the 11th April 1968. Once you have logged into the database with your library card, you can read this here
Our library webpages also have a page about the Wahine disaster which includes a list of the resources available from our library catalogue. One of the resources is an educational kit from Newspapers in Education that has a number of A2 pages featuring some of the newspapers stories from the time of the shipwreck.
A very moving documentary about the Wahine disaster screens at the Museum of Wellington City and Sea every 30 mins and there is a collection of YouTube video showing film footage from the Wahine disaster which can be viewed here.
The Emmanuel Makarios book The Wahine Disaster featured below has been a useful resource for this blog post.
As usual this week’s selected topic comes from the Today in History page at nzhistory.net.nz. The New Zealand Collection is located on the second floor of The Central Library. Each week we feature topics in the This Week in History display in the NZ Collection and using available databases and the library collections to illustrate and provide additional information.
2nd April 1916 – The Arrest of Rua Kēnana
Rua called himself the Mihāia (Messiah) and claimed to be the successor whose coming had been predicted by the prophet Te Kooti a generation earlier. By 1907 there were around 600 followers who had joined him and were living at Maungapōhatu, a model community that he had founded on non-violent principles.
Rua aimed to blend the best of Pākehā practices with Māori customs. He established a farming co-operative and a savings bank, and promised his people that their land and their mana would be returned. See below an image a bank book from the Maungapōhatu Bank.
Photo Credit:Rua Kenana Hepetipa, 1868?-1937. Kenana, Rua Hepetipa 1869-1937 : Peeke takoranga moni I raro i te mana O Rua Hepeti Maungapohatu. Ref: MSX-3427. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22840724
Many Pākehā saw the Maungapōhatu community as subversive and Rua as a disruptive influence. Māori politicians like Māui Pōmare and Āpirana Ngata believed that traditional tohunga (spiritual leaders) such as Rua held back Māori progress. Rua was summonsed to appear before the local magistrate on 19 January 1916. He excused himself on the grounds that it was harvest time but stated that he would attend the court session scheduled for February. This was viewed as contempt and a new warrant was issued for his arrest. John Cullen, the commissioner of police, began preparations for an armed police expedition to Maungapōhatu. Read an article here from Papers Past published in February of 1916 from The Star to see how Rua was perceived in the Pākehā press
Bourne, George, 1875-1924. Rua Kenana Hepetipa’s wooden circular courthouse and meeting house at Maungapohatu. Ref: 1/2-002915-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22846139
On Sunday 2 April 1916, 57 armed police invaded the remote Ngāi Tūhoe settlement of Maungapōhatu in the Urewera Ranges. They had been sent to arrest the prophet Rua Kēnana.
Rua was standing unarmed on the marae waiting to greet the approaching police when a shot was fired. In the following exchange of gunfire two of the Maungapōhatu residents were killed, including Rua’s son Toko. Senior police officers claimed they had walked into a planned ambush, but the evidence suggests it was the police who fired first. Rua and others were arrested on a number of charges ranging from resisting arrest to treason. They were taken to Auckland for trial. Rua was sentenced to 12 months’ hard labour followed by 18 months’ imprisonment.
Rua was taken to Auckland and charged with treason. Read here the judges summing up at the end of the trial. A jury found him not guilty, but Judge F.R. Chapman found him guilty of ‘morally’ resisting arrest. He lectured Rua that as a member of a race ‘still in tutelage’ he must learn that the arm of the law reached into ‘every corner’. Eight of the jury petitioned Parliament to have the sentence reduced.
Rua was released from jail in April 1918. The community at Maungapōhatu fell on hard times and by the early 1930s many had left in search of work.
Maungapōhatu, city in the mist. Photo by George Bourne. Auckland Institute and Museum
Rua went to live at Matahī, a community he had founded in 1910 on the Waimana River in eastern Bay of Plenty. He died there on 20 February 1937.
The Māori Collection alongside the New Zealand Collection holds a number of books about Rua Kēnana, the Tūhoe people and their land in the Urewera. The title featured first also looks at connections with the 1916 raid on Maungapōhatu and the 2007 raids on Tūhoe activists and urban anarchist supporters.
The prophet and the policeman : the story of Rua Kenana and John Cullen / Mark Derby.
“In April 1916, John Cullen, the Commissioner of the New Zealand Police Force, personally led a raid on the Tuhoe prophet Rua Kenana’s spiritual community at Maungapohatu, deep in the Urewera mountains. The raid, which was based on trumped-up charges, left two of Rua’s followers dead and a number of others wounded, and is often described as the last battle of the New Zealand Wars. The outcome of this raid was disastrous for race relations in this country and a historic low point for the New Zealand police. This book is an account of this dramatic, tragic and profoundly symbolic event in our history, told by recounting the life stories of its two principal antagonists. John Cullen was a farm labourer born in rural Ireland, who rose through the ranks to head the police force and was famously viotent, devious and authoritarian. Rua was notably gentle and inspirational, although often mysterious and contradictory. This is a highly readable, potent and fascinating book of New Zealand history. The two subjects of this dual biography represent two poles of the national character: the archetypal Pakeha no-nonsense conservative who was quite prepared to break the law to serve the interests of the section of society he represented, and the semi-mythical Maori spiritual leader, steeped in mysterious charisma and pre-scientific beliefs. The 2007 anti-terrorist raids on Tuhoe activists and the urban anarchist supporters have given the 1916 Maungapohatu raid a contemporary resonance: a connection that is explored in the conclusion of this book.” (Syndetics summary)
Mihaia : the prophet Rua Kenana and his community at Maungapohatu / Judith Binney, Gillian Chaplin, Craig Wallace.
“Rua Kenana was one of many Maori prophetic leaders of the 19th and 20th centuries. He called himself Te Mihaia hou, the new messiah, and was the leader of a section of the Tuhoe at a time when their land, the Urewera country, was threatened by possible prospecting and milling. Withdrawing to Maungapohatu, in the heart of Urewera, he established a community. This work is a history of Rua and his people, of the destruction of the community, by the government during World War I, and the struggle to start all over again.” (Syndetics summary)
Beyond betrayal : trouble in the promised land – restoring the mission to Māori / Keith Newman.
“Beyond Betrayal delves into New Zealand’s pioneering history, and asks why such promising partnerships descended into decades of distrust. After the Treaty of Waitangi was signed, a succession of governors resisted missionary advice, despite their local knowledge and peacemaking skills, and influenced a raft of misunderstandings that provoked violent outbreaks across the country. The rise of Maori prophetic movements, and an intense desire for Maori to have a unified political voice, saw allegiances split between those supporting the government and those frustrated at failed Treaty promises. The pressure to surrender tribal lands had the same impact – a shattered economy and a dispossessed people. The thrilling follow-up to Keith Newman’s bestselling Bible & Treaty, Beyond Betrayal looks behind the events that led to the first Maori land protests, and follows the unfolding drama through the stories of the early missionaries and Maori heroes of the faith. These dramatic and heartrending tales of injustice, sacrifice and redemption form an important and often misunderstood backdrop to the wider New Zealand story – one of the most turbulent periods in our history, told with skill, sensitivity and heart.”–Back cover.
Stories without end : essays 1975-2010 / Judith Binney.
“Judith Binney’s work spans nearly forty years of historical endeavour that began with the award-winning biography of the missionary Thomas Kendall, The Legacy of Guilt (1968). Her magisterial publication of 2009, Encircled Lands, is the culmination of many years’ work on the history of the Urewera – a great scholarly enterprise that began with a visit to Maungapohatu in the late 1970s. The questions that presented themselves, in that place about that history, led to what Judith Binney has called ‘the unanticipated trilogy’: Mihaia (the biography of Rua Kenana); Nga Morehu (oral histories of women connected to the Ringatu church); and prize-winning biography of Te Kooti, Redemption Songs. Around this central core of remarkable books stands a ring of essays, exploring sidepaths, offering other stories, presenting glimpses tangential to her historical narratives. The people of these ‘stories without end’ are those we meet in the books: Rua and Te Kooti, their wives and their descendants; the leaders of the Urewera; the schoolteachers from Maungapohatu; those early missionaries; the government men. Oral history brings its particular resonance to some essays; a discourse on symbols and maps lends insight to another; taking this very specific history, located in the Urewera, to readers outside New Zealand gives a new slant. The stories in this collection are just that: narratives that flow one into another, filling out histories, bringing people out of the shadows, bringing scholarship to life. They are ‘stories without end’, from a writer who is also one of New Zealand’s greatest scholars.” (Syndetics summary)
Tūhoe : portrait of a nation / text by Kennedy Warne ; photographs by Peter James Quinn.
“Tūhoe: Portrait of a Nation explores the relationship between Tūhoe and Te Urewera, the people and the land. It is the result of a multi-year project by acclaimed documentary photographer Peter James Quinn and Kennedy Warne, founding editor of New Zealand Geographic. The two journalists circled the ‘encircled lands’ – the tribal domain that stretches from the forest fortress of Lake Waikaremoana to the coastal valleys of the Bay of Plenty – and collected the stories of Tūhoe. From tribal leaders to possum hunters, traditional healers to tourism operators, Tūhoe shared their words, their culture and their lives. At once an exquisite photographic showcase – incorporating dramatic landscapes, documentary-style reportage and portraiture – and the most up-to-date retelling of Tūhoe history, here is a portrait of an iwi and its encounter with a unique and treasured land. Listening to the past through the voices of today, the book asks, and answers, the question: What does it mean to be Tūhoe?”–Publisher information.